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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

tropical coastal regions in the world is the Gulf of California region in northwestern Mexico ( Fig. 1 ). Here, the waters of the Gulf give way to a narrow coastal plain and then up to the 3000-m above mean sea level (MSL) peaks of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) mountain range, all in the span of less than 200 km. This region was the focus of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) during July–August 2004 ( Higgins et al. 2006 ; Higgins and Gochis 2007 ). NAME involved a large network of

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

rain over south Wales . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 107 , 643 – 670 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49710745312 . Hill, S. A. , 1881 : The methodology of the north-west Himalaya. Mem. India Meteor. Dep., 1, 377–426 . Houze, R. A., Jr ., 2012 : Orographic effects on precipitating clouds . Rev. Geophys. , 50 , RG1001 , doi:10.1029/2011RG000365 . Houze, R. A., Jr , and Medina S. , 2005 : Turbulence as a mechanism for orographic precipitation enhancement . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 3599 – 3623

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

. , Ralph F. M. , Wick G. A. , Lundquist J. , and Dettinger M. D. , 2008b : Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the west coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations . J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 22 – 47 . Neiman, P. J. , White A. B. , Ralph F. M. , Gottas D. J. , and Gutman S. I. , 2009 : A water vapor flux tool for precipitation forecasting . Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng.: Water Manage. , 162 , 83

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

Forecast System (GFS), North American Mesoscale model (NAM), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Met Office (UKMO), and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The HPC gridded-point QPF values are forwarded to the NWS RFCs, where the Hydrometeorological Analysis and Support (HAS) meteorologist reviews the RFC regional gridded-point values for a specified number of sites throughout the RFC region and modifies these points when appropriate to the local terrain, regional climate, and

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

. , Garavaglia F. , Gailhard J. , and Ribstein P. , 2013 : Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 17 , 1455 – 1473 , doi: 10.5194/hess-17-1455-2013 . Casola, J. H. , and Wallace J. M. , 2007 : Identifying weather regimes in the wintertime 500-hPa geopotential height field for the Pacific–North American sector using a limited-contour clustering technique . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 46

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the west coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations . J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 22 – 47 . Panziera, L. , and Germann U. , 2010 : The relationship between airflow and orographic precipitation in the Southern Alps as revealed by weather radar . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 136 , 222 – 238 . Praskievicz, S. , and Chang H. , 2009 : Winter precipitation intensity and ENSO/PDO variability in the Willamette Valley

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