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Richard D. Knabb, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

1. Overview Similar to the preceding two years, tropical cyclone activity in the eastern North Pacific basin (the area north of the equator between the American continents and 140°W longitude) was below average during 2005, especially in terms of hurricanes and major hurricanes [category 3 or stronger on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale ( Saffir 1973 ; Simpson 1974 )]. Sixteen tropical cyclones formed during the season, and all but one of these cyclones reached tropical storm strength. Seven

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

, persistent vertical wind shear, which prevented the storm from developing further, and Ernesto dissipated into a tropical wave on 3 September well north of the Leeward Islands. f. Hurricane Florence, 10–17 September Florence was a category 1 hurricane of subtropical origin that passed within about 65 n mi of Bermuda. During the first week of September, a cold front edged off the North American continent and became stationary over the western subtropical Atlantic. A weak wave along the front amplified

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Richard J. Pasch, Eric S. Blake, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle M. Mainelli, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

28 August). Using satellite data analysis techniques described by Avila et al. (2003) , the genesis of most of the tropical cyclones in the eastern North Pacific during 2006 can be attributed, at least in part, to westward-moving tropical waves that originated from Africa and crossed Central America. These tropical waves, with their focused source of low-level vorticity, propagated into the eastern North Pacific throughout the hurricane season as usual. However, they led to the development of

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Lixion A. Avila and Jamie Rhome

described by Avila et al. (2003) , most of the tropical cyclones formed from tropical waves that can be traced westward from the Atlantic basin into the eastern North Pacific. Figure 1 shows the shower activity associated with several tropical waves moving from the Caribbean Sea westward across Central America and into the eastern North Pacific. In particular, one can see the westward propagation of the convection associated with the wave that crossed Central America on 28 August. This wave was

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John L. Beven II and James L. Franklin

1. Introduction The eastern North Pacific hurricane basin covers the area north of the equator and east of 140°W longitude to Central and North America. Nine tropical storms formed in this basin during the 1999 hurricane season. Of these, six became hurricanes and two became major hurricanes—category 3 or higher (maximum sustained winds of 97 kt or greater) on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale ( Simpson 1974 ); the 1966–98 averages are 16 tropical storms, 9 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes

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Lixion A. Avila and John L. Guiney

significant role in the formation of many of the 1998 eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones. These waves usually take more than a week to traverse the Atlantic and Central America after emerging from west Africa. These waves are not always clearly depicted once they move into the eastern North Pacific. In some cases, the waves interact with a cyclonic monsoon-type flow, which is a climatological feature in this region during the hurricane season. With the single exception of Hurricane Kay, the 1998

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

waves play a significant to dominant role in TC development in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Avila et al. (2000) describe the methodology the NHC uses to track tropical waves from Africa across the tropical Atlantic, the Caribbean Sea, and Central America into the Pacific. Sixty-six tropical waves were tracked from the west coast of Africa across the tropical Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea from May to November 2003. Most of these waves reached the eastern North Pacific, where they played a role

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Lixion A. Avila, Richard J. Pasch, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Jiann-Gwo Jiing

disturbed weather that crossed Central America on 8 September, and moved westward to the eastern North Pacific with increasing organization. The associated tropical wave was previously observed over Albrook, Panama, during 5–6 September as depicted in Figs. 2a and 2b , which are vertical time sections of wind and relative humidity for that station for September 2001. Note the cyclonic wind shift and the significant increase in moisture to above the 400-mb level associated with the passage of the wave

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Max Mayfield and Edward N. Rappaport

Douglas, 29 July–6 August Hurricane Cesar, from the Atlantic basin, moved westward over Central America for about 18 h and emerged into the Pacific with tropical storm strength. It was then designated Tropical Storm Douglas. Such a name change for tropical cyclones crossing from the Atlantic to the eastern North Pacific is based on a World Meteorological Organization regional agreement. Once centered over the Pacific, the tropical cyclone intensified rapidly and was upgraded to a hurricane based

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

wind damage and flooding also spread along the path of the storm all the way to New England. The American Insurance Services Group reports an estimate of $135 million in insured property damage, primarily along coastal North Carolina. A conservative ratio between total damage and insured property damage, based on past landfalling hurricanes, is two to one. Then the total U.S. damage estimate is $270 million. No damage totals are available from the Caribbean. 4) Warnings

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