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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

also extend northeast into the extratropical Pacific oceans. The large explained variance might be due to atmospheric Rossby wave activity associated with the MJO-related convections. Over the land, except for the tropical Africa there are also local regions of larger variance explained in the middle Eurasian continent, Arabian Peninsula, part of Australia and western coastal and northeastern regions of the south American continent. For the north American continent, relatively larger value of

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Beata Latos, Thierry Lefort, Maria K. Flatau, Piotr J. Flatau, Donaldi S. Permana, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Jaka A. I. Paski, Erwin Makmur, Eko Sulystyo, Philippe Peyrillé, Zhe Feng, Adrian J. Matthews, and Jerome M. Schmidt

-driven hazards still remain to be fully investigated. This lack of understanding is challenging, especially from the socioeconomic perspective of a developing country ( Jongman et al. 2015 ). Sulawesi ( Fig. 1 ) is the fourth largest and third most populated of the Indonesian islands. It is located east of Borneo, between the Java Sea to the southwest, the Celebes Sea to the north, and the Banda Sea to the east. Sulawesi is inhabited by nearly 20 million people. Nearly 9 million people, or about 45% of the

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Ewan Short, Claire L. Vincent, and Todd P. Lane

amplitude is just over 0.5 m s −1 . Along the Java Sea transects, the perturbations at 0500–0700 LST (1700–1900 LST) rapidly change sign km north of Java, where land breezes (sea breezes) from the north coast of Java and south coast of Borneo converge (diverge). All the transects show evidence of the winds changing direction along the coastline before they change direction farther offshore, consistent with the propagation behavior predicted by linear theory for the tropics ( Rotunno 1983 , p. 2006

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Fadli Syamsudin, Urip Haryoko, and Biao Geng

difference in the boundary layer, and we want to leave this topic for future work. d. Thermodynamic profile over the R/V Mirai Besides the wind environments examined thus far, thermodynamic environments may also play roles in the offshore migration. In particular, thermally unstable condition for cumulus convection is considered to be favorable for the offshore migration. Hassim et al. (2016) analyzed their numerical simulations of the offshore migration north of New Guinea Island and compared the

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama

characteristics of the diurnal cycle depend on the MJO is known to be different in different regions. In the western coastal area of Sumatra Island in particular, the diurnal cycle of precipitation tends to be more distinct when the MJO convective envelope is located over the eastern Indian Ocean, whereas it becomes obscured when the envelope arrives at the Maritime Continent ( Fujita et al. 2011 ; Kamimera et al. 2012 ; Vincent and Lane 2017 ). On the other hand, the diurnal cycle off the north coast of

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