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IndianOcean northeast of Madagascar which is somewhere nearthe horizon to the left. The bands lie in the general areabounded by 50" und 70" E. and by 8" and 20 O S.In the picture 011 the right (pass 1121/1120, frame 3,1203 GMT, Sept. 28, 1961) the bands are in the areabetween 5" and 15"s. and between 5 O and 30 W.-almostmidway between Africa and South America. TheBrazilian coast lies beyond the horizon to the left of thispicture. Although the later TIROS 111 pictures, suchas this one, suffered

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

, a large area of smoke, emanating from slash burning dense and extended well offshore (S). On April 22 (fig. IB),operations in Central America, was observed on Applica- smoke covers a large area of the lowlands just north oftions Technology Satellite 3 (ATS 3) photographs. The the Sierra Madre Range (S) and extends northward to thesmoke was clearly visible for a 25-day period beginning front (T). Another area of smoke can also be seen north ofApr. 18, 1971. S. Bonis, of Guatemala, indicated

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PICTURE OF THE MONTH

A jet Stream Cirrus Shield

Carl O. Erickson

High ResolutionRadiometer (VHRR) aboard the NOAA-2 satellite asit passed southward over the eastern portions of Canada;,ib,, ti - / ~ - 4 ~-, ,;4..... ~ : l[x<,~ ;,~ ~ '-'J:t ~..~, t VHRR-IRm ..?, F~o. 1. View of eastern North America as seen through thevisible channel (0.6-0.7 ~m) of the Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard the NOAA-2 satellite. Picture time is approximately1445 GMT (0945 EST) 8 December 1973. Pro. 2. Same as Fig. 1, except infrared view (10.5-12..5 t~m).The coastline

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JOHN E. SHAUGHNESSY and THOMAS C. WANN

UDC 551.515.S:551.S7S.1@34.1)(265.2)1`1973.04.04"PICTURE OF THE MONTHFrontal Rope in the North PacificJOHN E. SHAUGHNESSY and THOMAS C. WANN-Weather Support Unit, Headquarters,1st Weather Wing (MAC), Hickam Air Force Base, HawaiiA line of clouds or "frontal rope" is often, but not traversing the central Pacific. Cloud tops along theseinvariably, seen on high-resolution weather satellite data lines, which are believed to be associated with convectivecoincident with the leading edge of cold

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ARTHUR H. SMITH JR.

photographs.rcsudly in the region a[ strong cc~ward verticd motion The ESSA 9 photopapb ahown in figure 1 has anbetwen an upper level trough and the next ridge down- extensive sheet of thin cyclonically curved cirrus, fromstrcam. Cirrus advected over the ridgeline into a A to B, associated with the cyclonically curved portioncyclonically curved flow usually dissipates rapidly in of a polar jet stream off the west coast of North America.FIGURE 1.-ESSA 9 view, pass 5290, at 2130 GMT on Apr. 25, 1970

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

, 1967. These clusters can be seen at g inthe upper left hand corner in figure 1. A long cirrus plumefrom the southern cluster over Denver indicates strongsouthwesterly flow at the cirrus level. Four funnel cloudswere reported at this point within an hour of the picture.The central cluster of thunderstorms mas part of a squall linewhich extended northeastward into Nebraska. The north-ernmost cluster, centered in South Dakota, with cirrusextending to the north, produced 2-in. hail and gustywinds in

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JAY ROSENTHAL

erosion-producing waves to be tropicalcyclones that form off the west coasts of Mexico a,ndCentral America and move out into the cooler waters of thenortheast Pacific Ocean. During the summer hurricaneseason, storms in this area form with such regularitythat the northeast Pacific is now recognized as the world'ssecond most active oceanic area in t'he production oftropical cyclones (Gray 1968).Meteorological satellites occasionally detect several ofthese t,ropical cyclones simultaneously in various

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Brandon J. Vogt and Stephen J. Hodanish

et al. 1986 ) to form the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN; Orville 2008 , 1991 ). The NLDN itself has gone through numerous upgrades and expansions through the 1990s and 2000s ( Cummins et al. 1998 , 2006 ), and is now known as the North American Lightning Detection Network, operated by Vaisala ( Orville et al. 2002 ). The NLDN detects CG lightning flashes and strokes over North America with a stroke detection efficiency of 60%–80% (during 2003–12), a flash detection efficiency

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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

of the hodograph, were relatively well represented by NCEP CFSR. An evident trend in increasing speed and directional LLS is discernible in the NCEP CFSR wind profiles ( Figs. 15b–d ), depicting an evolution that is in accordance with the establishment of a synoptic-scale LLJ ( Doswell 1991 ). This represents one relevant aspect because, while the role played by the LLJ in conditioning environments conducive to severe thunderstorms is widely documented for North America (e.g., Johns 1993

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A. JAMES WAGNER

disturbance up the At,lantic coast with agreater than normal northward component of motion. Thedaily 700-mb. charts preceding Hazel's devastation of theEast Coast in 1954 as given by Krueger [3] show remark-able similarities with the 1968 situation over the easternPacific and North America, but the circulation was morestrongly amplified in 1954.The intensity of the tropical system in 1968 was at leastan order of magnitude less than Hazel, but its intensity8909sMONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW14FIGURE 1.-Composite

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