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Shiyuan Zhong, Ju Li, C. David Whiteman, Xindi Bian, and Wenqing Yao

provided substantial details on the spatial and temporal structure of waves/rotors. However, they were limited by their short duration and were therefore unable to provide enough information on the seasonal variation in windstorm frequency to gain a more complete understanding of high wind events. In this study, we combine long-term climate data from a line of weather stations along the axis of the Owens Valley with data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to understand the general

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Christian Kühnlein, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Martin Weissmann

(eastern dot), and the position of upstream profiles ( Fig. 2 ) in the Central Valley, CA. (right) Vertical west–east sections along 36.8°N showing potential temperature θ (black lines, K) and horizontal wind magnitude (gray shading, m s −1 ). On 25 March 2006, a trough passed the west coast of North America and at 1800 UTC (1000 local time, which is Pacific standard time) the trough axis was located west of the Sierra Nevada. At the leading edge of the trough, and still in the warm sector before the

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale Durran

mountain-wave activity was forecast operationally during (intensive observing period) IOP-13 in the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (TREX; Grubišić et al. 2008 ). To explicitly resolve the scales of motion associated with mountain waves, three one-way nests with increasing horizontal resolution are used. Figure 12a shows the location and topography on the three nests. The outermost domain has a horizontal resolution of 27 km and covers a large region of the western North American continent and

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Qingfang Jiang and James D. Doyle

westerlies across the Sierra Nevada mountain range at and above the mountaintop level. The synoptic condition during IOP 12 can be seen in Fig. 4 , which shows the COAMPS 12-h forecast of winds and geopotential height fields at 500 hPa valid at 1200 UTC 13 April 2004. A developing trough was located off the west coast of North America and a weak pressure ridge was positioned over the central United States on 13 April, which resulted in relatively strong southwesterly flow impinging on the Sierra Nevada

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