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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

observations Soil moisture observations used to validate 4DWX-DPG are taken from the North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) at Texas A&M University ( http://soilmoisture.tamu.edu ), which harmonizes and quality controls several in situ soil moisture observing platforms. Within the region encompassed by the 4DWX-DPG 10-km domain, the NASMD observations come from 27 U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; Schaefer et al. 2007 ) stations and 15 global positioning system

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

. , 83 , 407 – 430 . Mellor, G. L. , and Yamada T. , 1982 : Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. , 20 , 851 – 875 . Mesinger, F. , and Coauthors , 2006 : North American Regional Reanalysis . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 343 – 360 . Mlawer, E. J. , Taubman S. J. , Brown P. D. , Iacono M. J. , and Clough S. A. , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

nature run, the WRF was initialized at 0000 UTC 19 January 2009 from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), which also provided lateral boundary conditions. Soil temperature and moisture were reset every 3 h to the NARR, preventing land surface drift during the 10-day nature run. Synthetic observations were produced every 3 h; observation locations and physical quantities were identical to the actual radiosonde observations available in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

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