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Ryan Lagerquist, Amy McGovern, Cameron R. Homeyer, David John Gagne II, and Travis Smith

spatial domain for each day is different and generally not CONUS-wide, but the domain usually covers a large portion of the CONUS, including most tornadoes on the given day and many nontornadic storms. At each 5-min time step, GridRad includes four variables on the 3D grid: reflectivity, spectrum width, vorticity (twice azimuthal shear), and divergence (twice radial shear). The RAP is a nonhydrostatic mesoscale model with 13- or 20-km grid spacing and covers much of North America, including the full

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Kyle A. Hilburn, Imme Ebert-Uphoff, and Steven D. Miller

, e0130140, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130140 . 10.1371/journal.pone.0130140 Bang , S. D. , and E. J. Zipser , 2015 : Differences in size spectra of electrified storms over land and ocean . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 6844 – 6851 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065264 . 10.1002/2015GL065264 Benjamin , S. G. , and Coauthors , 2016 : A North American hourly assimilation and model forecast cycle: The Rapid Refresh . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 1669 – 1694 , https://doi.org/10

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Hanoi Medina, Di Tian, Fabio R. Marin, and Giovanni B. Chirico

). Annual rainfall is commonly less than 750 mm ( Leal et al. 2005 ), and it is highly variable ( Moura and Shukla 1981 ). The region experiments a peculiar intra-annual rainfall regime, with a maximum in March–April over the north and the center part and in November–March over the southern part. Cerrado is a tropical savanna covering 22% of Brazil’s territory. The overall amount of rain is usually between 800 and 2000 mm yr −1 ( Ratter et al. 1997 ), mostly distributed between October and April

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Eric D. Loken, Adam J. Clark, Amy McGovern, Montgomery Flora, and Kent Knopfmeier

SREF analyses herein are output to a grid with 32-km horizontal grid spacing (NCEP grid 221). SREF configuration details are summarized in Table 2 . Table 2. SREF member specifications, adapted from Du et al. (2015) . Initial conditions (ICs) are taken from the operational Rapid Refresh (RAP; Benjamin et al. 2016 ), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s (NCEP’s) Global Forecast System (GFS), and the North American Mesoscale Model Data Assimilation System (NDAS). IC perturbations

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Dan Lu, Goutam Konapala, Scott L. Painter, Shih-Chieh Kao, and Sudershan Gangrade

). USGS Techniques and Methods Doc. 6-B9, 38 pp. , https://doi.org/10.3133/tm6B9 . 10.3133/tm6B9 Thornton , P. E. , M. M. Thornton , B. W. Mayer , N. Wilhelmi , Y. Wei , R. Devarakonda , and R. B. Cook , 2014 : Daymet: Daily surface weather data on a 1-km grid for North America, version 2. ORNL DAAC, accessed 15 December 2020 , https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1219 . 10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1219 Tian , Y. , Y.-P. Xu , Z. Yang , G. Wang , and Q. Zhu , 2018 : Integration

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Amy McGovern, Ryan Lagerquist, David John Gagne II, G. Eli Jergensen, Kimberly L. Elmore, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Travis Smith

, Canada, Neural Information Processing Systems Foundation. Benjamin , S. , and Coauthors , 2004 : An hourly assimilation–forecast cycle: The RUC . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 495 – 518 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0495:AHACTR>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0495:AHACTR>2.0.CO;2 Benjamin , S. , and Coauthors , 2016 : A North American hourly assimilation and model forecast cycle: The Rapid Refresh . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 1669 – 1694 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15

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