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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

atmospheric ice nuclei distributions and their impacts on climate . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 107 , 11 217 – 11 222 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910818107 . 10.1073/pnas.0910818107 Du , J. , 2011 : GCIP/EOP surface: Precipitation NCEP/EMC 4KM gridded data (GRIB) stage IV data, version 1.0. UCAR/NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory, accessed 1 January 2017 , https://doi.org/10.5065/D6PG1QDD . 10.5065/D6PG1QDD ECMWF , 2016 : IFS documentation CY41R2: Parts III–VI. ECMWF Rep., 556 pp. , http://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts

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Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

be approximately 00:32:30. The last image was taken at ≃1840 UTC (1240 LST). Figure 1 shows the WB-57 flight path and locations of the dropsonde launches during the NAST-I sampling period (1523–1940 UTC) overlying two U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES-12 ) visible channel (band 1, 0.65 μ m) images taken within the same time frame. Given that the occurrence of cloud-free FOVs for a IR sounder such as CrIS or IASI

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

values are created by a function that generates random numbers using a normal distribution, with a prescribed variance of 0.05 and an average of 0.0. This is slightly modified from the method provided by the WRF Working Group 13 ( NOAA 2007 ), which is designed for operational forecasting and more ensemble members. Fig . 2. BASE case boundary layer (0–2 km), 24-h-averaged (a) total PM 2.5, (b) sulfate aerosol, (c) ammonium aerosol, and (d) nitrate aerosol. The black box denotes the region where

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

aerosols and the atmosphere requires fully coupled models, among which the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is a representative online model ( Grell et al. 2005 ) that can provide prognostic CCN size distributions, compositions, and number concentrations. Using WRF-Chem, we conducted three simulations to investigate the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the precipitation, thermodynamic structure, and microphysical processes of Typhoon Usagi (2013). This typhoon

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

(CBH) of all single-layer cloudy profiles were extracted from the CloudSat geometric profile lidar product (2B-GEOPROF-lidar). Temperatures at cloud base (CBT) and cloud top (CTT) were extracted from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) auxiliary (ECMWF-AUX) product. Other variables extracted from the ECMWF-AUX product include relative humidity (RH) profiles, column water vapor (CWV), and lower-tropospheric static stability (LTSS), which is defined as the potential

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