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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

members were combined with perturbed forcing data to determine the state ensemble in Eq. (3) : where is a vector of forecasted states at time t and is a vector of updated states for the previous time. The forcing data were perturbed by adding the noise γ t with covariance at each time step to generate its ensemble according to Eq. (4) : The JULES model was run forward in time to determine the ensemble predictions in Eq. (5) : where f 2 represents the JULES prediction. The observation

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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

. Grant, J. , Saleh-Contell K. , Wigneron J. , Guglielmetti M. , Kerr Y. H. , Schwank M. , Skou S. , and Van de Griend A. A. , 2008 : Calibration of the L-MEB model over a coniferous and deciduous forest . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 46 , 808 – 818 . Holmes, T. R. H. , Drusch M. , Wigneron J. P. , and Jeu R. A. M. D. , 2008 : A global simulation of microwave emission: Error structures based on output from ECMWF’s operational integrated forecast system . IEEE Trans

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Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini

.1139/l88-109 . Pianosi, F. , and Ravazzani G. , 2010 : Assessing rainfall-runoff models for the management of Lake Verbano . Hydrol. Processes , 24 , 3195 – 3205 , doi:10.1002/hyp.7745 . Rabuffetti, D. , Ravazzani G. , Corbari C. , and Mancini M. , 2008 : Verification of operational Quantitative Discharge Forecast (QDF) for a regional warning system—The AMPHORE case studies in the upper Po River . Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. , 8 , 161 – 173 , doi:10.5194/nhess-8

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

and z 0h to calculate u * , θ * , and H cal from Eqs. (2a) – (2e) , 4) use u * and θ * to calculate kB −1 from kB −1 = ln( z 0m / z 0h ) according to each of the four z 0h schemes, and 5) repeat steps 2–4 until the cost function is minimized. c. Noah LSM The Noah LSM is widely used and forms the land component of the regional and global weather forecasting models at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF

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