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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

presents conclusions and a discussion. 2. Data a. Operational analysis and reanalysis data We use the monthly fields on a 0.5° × 0.5° grid of operational analysis and the associated forecast fields provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) from January 2002 to February 2006, the same period as in Minobe et al. (2008) . The operational atmospheric model uses a spectral dynamical core with TL511 resolution (i.e., triangular truncation at total wavenumber 511 with a

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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

et al. (2008) and Torn and Hakim (2009) . The former study investigated the downstream predictability using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system; the latter study used an ensemble of NWP model simulations to explore the sensitivity of the modeled storm to initial conditions during the early portion of its extratropical phase. The standard deviations in 500-hPa geopotential height from these studies, in the vicinity of Tokage and downstream

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

updraft anchored over the surface convergence extends to the upper troposphere based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) observations and an atmospheric analysis product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In an AGCM with 50-km horizontal resolution, the Gulf Stream–trapped structures of surface wind convergence, precipitation, and cyclone activity disappear when the SST data are smoothed. Their linear model response to diabatic heating over the Gulf Stream indicates

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Simpson et al. 1996 ), and free-tropospheric winds from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses Simmons and Gibson (2000) , Minobe et al. show that the SST has a significant influence on the tropospheric wind fields and precipitation patterns. The annually averaged rain pattern responds to changes in the location of the Gulf Stream in their 50-km-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) runs. The SST also

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk formula ( Fairall et al. 1996 ) by combining microwave SST from Remote Sensing Systems with wind speed from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and other atmospheric variables from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Global Advanced Operational Surface Analysis, a high-resolution output from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational mode with a resolution of about 1.125°.

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