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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

-altitude configuration of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). This system and its DEEPWAVE reanalysis products are the subject of a separate paper (Eckermann et al. 2016a, unpublished manuscript), and so only a brief overview relevant to the current study is provided here. NAVGEM is the U.S. Navy’s operational global NWP system, comprising a forecast model based on a 3-time-level semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian discretization of the fluid equations on the sphere, coupled to a four-dimensional variational (4

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

of aircraft data ( Smith et al. 2016 ; Smith and Kruse 2017 ) and a well validated set of high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations ( Kruse et al. 2016 ). These resources allow us to propose and test a new hypothesis regarding wave drag on complex terrain. 3. Describing New Zealand’s terrain a. Volume and variance To analyze the South Island of New Zealand, we use the standard global 30-arc-s elevation (GTOPO30) (~1-km terrain) dataset transformed to a local

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

; Doyle et al. 2011 ) were applied to the DEEPWAVE study area to provide real-time forecast guidance during the field campaign period ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). COAMPS is a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic terrain-following mesoscale model. The finite-difference schemes are of second-order accuracy in time and space in this application. The boundary layer and free-atmospheric turbulent mixing and diffusion are represented using a prognostic equation for the turbulence kinetic energy budget following

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Christopher G. Kruse, Ronald B. Smith, and Stephen D. Eckermann

increasing orographic GWD significantly reduces the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex primarily by altering planetary Rossby wave propagation and drag. This result suggests that increasing parameterized orographic GWD in chemistry–climate models might reduce the cold-pole problem in free-running climate simulations. In this paper, the vertical propagation and attenuation of New Zealand mountain waves are studied using deep Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations with realistic

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