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Zhaoxia Pu, Chaulam Yu, Vijay Tallapragada, Jianjun Jin, and Will McCarty

demonstrate the impact of GMI data assimilation, the intensity correction component is turned off in all data assimilation experiments presented in this study. However, the vortex relocation is still used for data assimilation experiments to avoid potential phase errors that may put observations in wrong locations and result in harm to the vortex inner core. In addition, the current operational HWRF uses the NCEP GFS analysis to initialize the outer domain (d01) and also uses the GFS forecast to provide

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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

assimilation include the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) ( Hou et al. 2000a , b , 2001 , 2004 ; Pu et al. 2002 ; Lin et al. 2007 ), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational system ( Lopez and Bauer 2007 ; Geer et al. 2008 ; Lopez 2011 , 2013 ), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) ( Lien et al. 2016 ; Shao et al. 2016 ). On a regional scale, studies have assimilated rain rates into models such as the

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

. Traditional global analyses from operational systems are used to initialize the ensemble forecasts at the initial data assimilation cycling period. The large-scale forcing for subsequent forecasts during the cycling period is applied through domain boundaries. To constrain the dynamical forcing in domain interiors, the following data from the operational global observing system are also assimilated: in situ conventional observations and clear-sky radiances from temperature and moisture-sensitive channels

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