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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

the entire experimental period relative to ground data in addition to an operational forecast model. Finally, we discuss the implications of this work for future forecasting applications. 2. Experiment design The NU-WRF ( http://nuwrf.gsfc.nasa.gov ) modeling system has been developed at GSFC as an observation-driven integrated modeling system that represents aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and land processes at satellite-resolved scales ( Peters-Lidard et al. 2015 ). NU-WRF is a superset of the

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Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, and Amir AghaKouchak

implementing an operational satellite-based flood forecasting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 1201–1207 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00176.1 . Hsu, K. , Gao X. , Sorooshian S. , and Gupta H. V. , 1997 : Precipitation estimation from remotely sensed information using artificial neural networks . J. Appl. Meteor. , 36 , 1176 – 1190 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<1176:PEFRSI>2.0.CO;2 . Hsu, K. , Sellars S. , Nguyen P. , Braithwaite D. , and Chu W. , 2013 : G-WADI PERSIANN

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Felipe Quintero, Witold F. Krajewski, Ricardo Mantilla, Scott Small, and Bong-Chul Seo

include dual-polarization information. The rainfall estimates are available at 5-min time resolution and a spatial resolution of 0.004° cell size (~0.4 km). This product is the main forcing for the operational flood forecasting system implemented in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS; Demir and Krajewski 2013 ) and provides real-time flood warnings to all communities in Iowa. The radar product is not adjusted with information from rain gauges because of the lack of an adequate statewide

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Luciana K. Cunha, James A. Smith, Witold F. Krajewski, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Bong-Chul Seo

). The importance of radars for weather analysis, warnings, and forecasting has been proven throughout the years. However, as shown by various studies, the accuracy of SP radar QPE is limited, and applying this information in hydrology requires careful attention ( Smith et al. 1996 ; Baeck and Smith 1998 ; Borga 2002 ; Cunha et al. 2012 ; Berne and Krajewski 2013 ). With the goal of improving radar QPE, the NWS has implemented a few initiatives, one of the most recent ones being the upgrade of

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Bong-Chul Seo, Brenda Dolan, Witold F. Krajewski, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter Petersen

. Although the DP algorithm is found to be more accurate compared to gauge estimates of rainfall, the radar-range limitation is a major problem for applying such an algorithm operationally, where complete spatial coverage is essential for producing streamflow and flood forecasts, for example. The polarimetric algorithm could be significantly improved because it can well detect snow/ice and the location of the melting layer. However, much research still remains to enable such an improvement in the

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Ibrahim Demir, Helen Conover, Witold F. Krajewski, Bong-Chul Seo, Radosław Goska, Yubin He, Michael F. McEniry, Sara J. Graves, and Walter Petersen

provide global predictions of floods and other precipitation-induced natural hazards. The precipitation data allow us to evaluate (validate) space-based rainfall estimates across several spatial scales, while multiple stream gauges allow us to evaluate the predictive abilities of the hydrologic models used to convert rainfall into runoff and to forecast discharge and flooding. Petersen and Krajewski (2013) provide an overview of the IFloodS science objectives. The deployment of multiple weather

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Bong-Chul Seo, Witold F. Krajewski, Felipe Quintero, Mohamed ElSaadani, Radoslaw Goska, Luciana K. Cunha, Brenda Dolan, David B. Wolff, James A. Smith, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter A. Petersen

-D-13-00164.1 Istok , M. , and Coauthors , 2009 : WSR-88D dual-polarization initial operational capabilities. 25th Conf. on Int. Interactive Information and Processing Systems (IIPS) in Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology , Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 15.5, http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/148927.pdf . Katz , R. W. , and A. H. Murphy , Eds., 1997 : Economic Value of Weather and Climate Forecasts . Cambridge University Press, 222 pp. 10.1017/CBO9780511608278 Kelleher , K. E

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

for attenuation of radar reflectivity using polarization data . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 2393 – 2415 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49712455111 . Tabary, P. , 2007 : The new French operational radar rainfall product. Part I: Methodology . Wea. Forecasting , 22 , 393 – 408 , doi: 10.1175/WAF1004.1 . Tabary, P. , Vulpiani G. , Gourley J. J. , Illingworth A. J. , Thompson R. J. , and Bousquet O. , 2009 : Unusually high differential attenuation at C Band: Results from a two

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

; Trier et al. 2010 ). There have been previous modeling efforts to reproduce the diurnal cycle of precipitation; however, many global and regional models have experienced difficulties in capturing the nocturnal precipitation maxima, in particular over the Great Plains (e.g., Lee et al. 2008 , and references therein). Berbery and Rasmusson (1999) reported that the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Eta model forecast precipitation shows a dry bias over the central United States

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Merhala Thurai, Kumar Vijay Mishra, V. N. Bringi, and Witold F. Krajewski

. 10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<0612:EOANPB>2.0.CO;2 Bringi , V. N. , R. Thurai , and R. Hannesen , 2007 : Dual-Polarization Weather Radar Handbook. 2nd ed. Gematronik GmbH, 163 pp. Bringi , V. N. , M. Rico-Ramirez , and M. Thurai , 2011 : Rainfall estimation with an operational polarimetric C-band radar in the United Kingdom: Comparison with a gauge network and error analysis . J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 935 – 954 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05013.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05013.1 Ciach , G. J

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