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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and integrated forward for 40 days until 0000 UTC 10 September 2016. The simulations were forced at the lower boundary with daily sea surface temperatures also taken from the analysis of ECMWF. ICON and NICAM do not use any type of GW drag parameterizations. The physics parameterizations in IFS are those of the operational setup and include nonorographic ( Scinocca 2003 ) and orographic ( Lott and Miller 1997 ) GW drag

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

to be usable for nonrotating cases as well. The Boussinesq setting of our analysis does not say that non-Boussinesq effects are irrelevant. The vertical decrease of ambient density would play an important role in operational weather forecast and climate models. This is left out here for the mere sake of simplicity, but corresponding generalizations as in Bölöni et al. (2016) seem straightforward. Moreover, in an analysis based on fully compressible dynamics, Achatz et al. (2017) identify

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

; Butchart 2014 ). The dynamics of the middle atmosphere can influence the tropospheric circulation by downward control ( Haynes et al. 1991 ), and it can be very important for the forecasting of weather ( Baldwin and Dunkerton 2001 ) and climate ( Scaife et al. 2005 , 2012 ). Despite the increasing computational power, an important range of GW spatial scales remains unresolved in most atmospheric global circulation models (GCM) or in global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models ( Alexander et al

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

:// . 10.1175/2007MWR2100.1 Koch , S. E. , and C. O’Handley , 1997 : Operational forecasting and detection of mesoscale gravity waves . Wea. Forecasting , 12 , 253 – 281 ,<0253:OFADOM>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1997)012<0253:OFADOM>2.0.CO;2 Lane , T. P. , and M. J. Reeder , 2001 : Convectively generated gravity waves and their effect on the cloud environment . J. Atmos. Sci. , 58 , 2427 – 2440 ,

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