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Kirstin Kober and George C. Craig

fully compressible equations of motion on an Arakawa-C grid that is chosen to have a horizontal resolution of 0.025° (approximately 2800 m) and 50 vertical levels by a terrain following coordinate system (Lorenz grid staggering). Model forecasts are computed over 24 h with a time step of 25 s. The domain over which the model is integrated is smaller than the operational version run at the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and is centered over Germany ( Fig. 1 ). Initial and boundary conditions are

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Simon T. K. Lang, Sarah C. Jones, Martin Leutbecher, Melinda S. Peng, and Carolyn A. Reynolds

). For the EPS, SVs are calculated for the extratropics of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Extra sets of SVs are added for tropical cyclones (TCs) ( Puri et al. 2001 ). A further area where SV techniques are applied is for targeted observations ( Palmer et al. 1998 ; Leutbecher 2003 ). SV calculations are carried out usually at relatively low resolution [T42 (≈320 km) for the operational EPS] and therefore the forecast used to calculate the SVs is not able to represent a TC properly because of

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Franziska Teubler and Michael Riemer

, such a pattern can be expected to yield ridge amplification and a hindrance and deformation of the upstream trough. d. Direct diabatic modification Diabatic processes have a direct impact on the PV distribution by modifying θ gradients—a mechanism that is represented by diabatic terms in the PV-tendency equation. Different contributions to the diabatic generation of PV anomalies in an operational forecast model have been investigated in detail by Chagnon et al. (2013) and Chagnon and Gray

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