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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

aerosol changes jointly and respectively affect hazardous weather events such as hailstones and tornadoes using advanced cloud microphysics and urban canopy parameterizations. The Chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-Chem) is employed, in which the spectral-bin microphysics (SBM) is coupled with the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC; Gao et al. 2016 ). The multilayer urban canopy model Building Environment Parameterization coupled with

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign ( Geerts et al. 2017 ). The observed system was simulated utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) and subsequently analyzed within the context of theories for bores and long-period gravity waves. Our findings suggest that bores can form aloft within capping inversions in the middle troposphere through the lifting of this stable layer by flow over the convectively generated cold pool ( Fig. 1

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

. 1982 ; Orville and Henderson 1986 ; Maddox et al. 1979 , 1986 ; Fritsch et al. 1986 ; Jirak and Cotton 2007 ). Operational numerical weather prediction and global circulation models have little skill in forecasting nocturnal precipitation in this region ( Davis et al. 2003 ; Clark et al. 2007 ; Lee et al. 2008 ; Surcel et al. 2010 ; Song et al. 2013 ). Nocturnal convection over the central United States often develops within an eastward-propagating envelope of successively dissipating and

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

, several studies (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Clark et al. 2007 ; Surcel et al. 2010 ) have demonstrated that advancing forecast skill in numerical weather prediction models for these nocturnal systems has proven elusive. The low skill is important, since researchers have long established that summer thunderstorms and convective precipitation are most frequent after sunset over a broad region of the Great Plains, ranging from Oklahoma to southern Manitoba, and between about 92° and 100°W ( Kincer 1916

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