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HENRY W. BRANDLI, JOHN W. OLIVER, and RAMON J. ESTU

and day. The Detachment 11forecast facility at Cape Kennedy, Fla., was the fhtoperational site in the world to receive and process thishighest quality, real-time, expanded, simultaneous scan-ning radiometer data. Detachment 11 uses a modifiedSTttLAWRENCE RIVERLAKE ERIELON6 ISLANDCAPE KENNEDYPOPfl 35,000'OPq 5,000 FT27" C SEA TEMP CARIBBEANFIGURE l."Geographicdy gridded simultaneous NOAA 2 scanning radiometry imagery for 1400-1423 GMT, Oct. 20, 1972.538 / Vol. 101, No. 6 / Monthly Weather

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

reactions ( Teitelbaum and Sadourny 1998 ; Carslaw et al. 1998 ). Simulation of mesoscale mountain waves especially posed a challenge, and special methods such as linear wave prediction models and mesoscale forecast models were used in the past to predict their local formation (e.g., Dörnbrack et al. 1998 ; Eckermann et al. 2006 ). In this day and age, global operational NWP models use spatial resolutions, which hardly could be attained by limited-area models several years ago. For example, the

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JOSEPH A. MILLER

forecaster by identifying the dry airintrusion and determining it,s motion. No deaths werereported in the area struck by tornadoes. This, no doubt,was due in part to the timeliness of the watches issued bythe NSSFC. Colocation of the SFSS and the NSSFCpresents a unique opportunity to correlate satelliteimagery and conventional meteorological data. Rela-tionships pertinent to mesoscale features and satelliteimagery can be evaluated in real time. With the launchof the Geostationary Operational

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ARTHUR H. SMITH JR.

areas are easily verified when they occurover data-rich areas and, if similar cloud patterns areidentified over little-traveled, data-sparse regions, theidentification and forecasting of turbulence can mostcertainly be improved.One such example of cloud patterns associated with ahigh risk area occurred on Dec. 28-29, 1970. The jet streamcloud patterns a.ssociated with the turbulent areas can beseen in figure 1. The clouds associated with the sub-tropical jet stream originate in the intertropical

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A. JAMES WAGNER

that time of year. The warm water mayalso have contributed to the deepening and the rainfallby supplying additional sensible and latent energy to thesystem. It is also perhaps significant that a water tempera-ture of 80F. is just below the threshold level suggestedby Palmen [4] as being a necessary condition for tropicalstorm formation.Although the surface synoptic maps prepared opera-tionally every 3 hr. by the Analysis and Forecast Divisionof the Weather Bureau at the National

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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

, two of these offices attributed them to lake-effect processes, such as those that occur with the Great Lakes (e.g., Niziol 1987 ; Niziol et al. 1995 ). The operational Eta Model initialized at 0000 UTC 23 January did not forecast this snow (not shown). As we discussed this event during the daily afternoon Storm Prediction Center–National Severe Storms Laboratory weather discussion ( Kain et al. 2003 ), we recognized that, although some snows were found locally downstream of lakes, most of the

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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

algorithm ( Stumpf et al. 1998 ) would most likely not have flagged the structure as a mesocyclone, given the poorly resolved radial velocity field. As for operational implications ( Brotzge and Donner 2013 ), forecasters working in tornado-prone areas around the world, some of them not densely covered by radars, must be reminded that features such as mesocyclones and hook echoes may be difficult to detect when tornadic storms are distant from the radar and/or when the radar beamwidth is greater than 1

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John P. Monteverdi, Roger Edwards, and Gregory J. Stumpf

preclude the direct use of their data for establishing its proximity thermodynamic and shear environment. An objectively produced sounding and hodograph interpolated from the available radiosonde data and numerical model soundings and plots were examined instead ( section 3a ). d. Satellite imagery Fortunately, the catalog of satellite imagery from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) for 7 and 8 July 2004 is extensive. The authors obtained 1-km resolution satellite visible

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Bryce J. Weinand

1. Introduction Between 1200 and 1500 UTC on 17 April 1999, a series of mesoscale eddies formed east of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Nebraska. Although generally clear skies prevailed, the eddies were strikingly apparent in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 ( GOES-8 ) water vapor imagery ( Figs. 1–3 ). This case is unusual in that multiple eddies formed in a linear fashion and were well structured for a long temporal period. Initially there was a total of four

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

calculated using the Global Forecast System (GFS) operational analysis. The SHIPS database parameters used were (i) SHRD: magnitude of the deep-layer 850–200-hPa shear vector averaged from r = 200 to 800 km, (ii) RSST: Reynolds analysis sea surface temperature ( Reynolds and Smith 1993 ), (iii) D200: 200-hPa divergence averaged from r = 0 to 1000 km, and (iv) RHMD: 700–500-hPa relative humidity averaged from r = 200 to 800 km. The deep-layer shear and SST are plotted in Fig. 3a from 1200 UTC 22

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