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T. Ghosh and T. N. Krishnamurti

1. Introduction Consensus forecasts for meteorological events were operationally used in the pioneering studies of Toth and Kalnay (1993 1997 ), Molteni et al. (1996) , Houtekamer et al. (1996) , and Goerss (2000) . Krishnamurti et al. (1999) introduced the notion of a multimodel superensemble (MMSE) to combine multimodel forecast datasets using a linear multiple regression approach that utilized the mean-square error reduction principle. Studies reported on the efficiency of this

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

operational forecasts of Hurricane Patricia.] Another two experiments deal with the use of different vertical resolutions: a coarser one and a finer one of 41 and 73 vertical levels, which are referred to as V41 and V73, respectively. Figures 9a and 9b show that despite their different resolutions, V41 and V73 share the same Ω vertical distribution as that in CTL, with higher resolutions in both the lower and upper levels, but relatively coarse resolutions in the midtroposphere. For fair comparisons

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Shixuan Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

. (1) , and the other terms are the same as those in Eq. (1) . In the GSI hybrid 4DEnVar, the tangential linear model and adjoint model in the traditional 4DVar are avoided by using the model forecast and preconditioned ensemble perturbations in each observational bin. Detailed explanations of the GSI hybrid 4DEnVar algorithm can be found in Wang and Lei (2014) and Kleist and Ide (2015) . The GSI-4DEnVar system has been applied in the NCEP operational GFS system since 2015, but this scheme has

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

dense level of coverage of AMVs over three Atlantic hurricanes and their near environments. With this special processing strategy, these AMV observations in effect serve as a proxy for the AMV datasets becoming routinely available from the Himawari-8 and GOES-16 satellites (except for the limited coverage of the rapid-scan domains). Velden et al. (2017) utilized the operational version of the Hurricane Weather and Research Forecast (HWRF) Model data assimilation to create “cold start” initial

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