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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

moisture, vegetation) become more important. Through the GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) and its follow-on project, GAPP, a number of regional land surface and atmospheric products have been developed to support the forecast systems at NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). In particular, the snow cover fields derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and the solar radiation fields derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

from the operational mesoscale numerical weather forecast model of NCEP from the early 1990s until late June 2006, with various model upgrades periodically implemented throughout that time. Such regional climate model (RCM) configurations of the Eta Model have been applied in several regional climate model studies ( Takle et al. 1999 ; Fennessy and Shukla 2000 ; Xue et al. 2001 ). The particular version of the model used in this study is very close to the version used in the NCEP North American

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

Pyrenees: A tramontana case study. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 124 , 687 – 700 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<0687:NSOFDA>2.0.CO;2 Grubišić, V. , Vellore R. , and Huggins A. , 2005 : Quantitative precipitation forecasting of wintertime storms in the Sierra Nevada: Sensitivity to the microphysical parameterization and horizontal resolution. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 2834 – 2859 . 10.1175/MWR3004.1 Gu, Y. , Fararra J. , Liou K. , and Mechoso C. , 2003 : Parameterization of cloud

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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

limitations of computing power, conceptual and often lumped-parameter models mainly focus on the simulation of aggregated output (total streamflow) at the watershed outlet and usually cannot offer sufficient details and accurate estimation of water fluxes in a spatially heterogeneous domain. Although these watershed hydrological models have been widely and successfully used in flood forecasting and regional water resources planning ( Shen 1992 ; Guo et al. 1997 ; Xu and Guo 1994 ), they cannot simulate

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

1. Introduction The area of frozen soil, including permafrost and seasonal frost, accounts for about 20% of the earth’s land area ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ). Frozen soil processes in cold regions play an important role in climate change and weather forecasting ( Mölders and Walsh 2004 ; Poutou et al. 2004 ; Viterbo et al. 1999 ). For example, the freeze–thaw cycle modulates the change of both soil temperature and the overlying air temperature due to release or absorption of latent heat during

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