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David A. R. Kristovich, Luke Bard, Leslie Stoecker, and Bart Geerts

1. Introduction Forecasts of lake-effect snowstorms have become increasingly accurate as numerical atmospheric simulations have improved. However, critical details of the mesoscale structure, spatial and temporal distribution of snowfall, snowband movement, and precipitation intensity continue to be difficult to predict (e.g., Niziol et al. 1995 ). Much of the forecast difficulty is due to smaller-scale processes within the lake-effect boundary layer ( Saslo and Greybush 2017 ), many of which

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

lightning was cloud-to-ground (20 of 26 NLDN flashes), and a large fraction of the flashes in these low-flash-rate storms are likely due to the presence of anthropogenic structures (e.g., all 3 flashes in IOP5 and 9 of 20 flashes in IOP7). We cannot compare this ratio with previous climatological data, because in-cloud lightning detection has been a recent advance for operational networks. Observations from the newly launched Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-16 will give more information

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