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Wesley Berg, Stephen Bilanow, Ruiyao Chen, Saswati Datta, David Draper, Hamideh Ebrahimi, Spencer Farrar, W. Linwood Jones, Rachael Kroodsma, Darren McKague, Vivienne Payne, James Wang, Thomas Wilheit, and John Xun Yang

1. Introduction The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission seeks to build upon the success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) through improved technology, expanded global coverage, and improved temporal sampling from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM Core Observatory provides a number of improvements over TRMM. These include a Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that adds a Ka-band radar with better sensitivity to light

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

. 1996 , 2001 , 2015 ; Kubota et al. 2007 ; Gopalan et al. 2010 ; Mugnai et al. 2013 ; Ebtehaj et al. 2015 ; Kidd et al. 2016 ; Petković et al. 2018 ). The TRMM ( Kummerow et al. 2000 ) and GPM ( Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ) satellite missions in particular provided the data and the research framework allowing the successful development of research and operational retrieval algorithms. Today, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is integrated in an international constellation

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Clément Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Christian D. Kummerow, and Veljko Petković

microwave observations and 3D radar reflectivity profiles that can be used to define parametric empirical or physical relations between precipitation rates and microwave brightness temperatures. Various operational algorithms for the retrieval of surface precipitation from passive microwave such as NASA’s GPROF ( Kummerow et al. 2001 , 2015 ), JAXA’s GSMaP ( Aonashi et al. 2009 ), and the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H SAF)’s Cloud Dynamics

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H. Dong and X. Zou

swath is 885 km wide. Each scan cycle takes 1.875 s. For channels 1–7, the GMI has an operational calibration cycle that repeats every two scans and uses a four-point calibration method. The main channel specifications are provided in Table 1 . Table 1. GMI channel characteristics ( Draper et al. 2015b ). For GMI channels 8–13, all scans have a scan-by-scan calibration cycle and employ the heritage linear sensor radiometric calibration method ( NASA GSFC 2014 ). A mixer/intermediate frequency

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