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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

small-scale ridges ( Minder et al. 2008 ), and the semi-idealized nature of the simulations in Purnell and Kirshbaum (2018) makes it difficult to directly compare with Zagrodnik et al. (2018 , 2019) . By examining microphysical output from realistic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations, this study evaluates the relative importance of warm and cold precipitation processes on the full barrier scale as well as on localized sub-barrier ridges and valleys. The model setup, evaluation

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Aaron R. Naeger, Brian A. Colle, Na Zhou, and Andrew Molthan

1. Introduction Bulk microphysical parameterization (BMP) schemes are a critical component of operational weather forecasting models, as they must simulate the formation and development of hydrometeor species, including their interaction, growth, and precipitation processes. Thus, model performance and precipitation forecasts can be strongly dependent on the parameterizations and assumptions used to represent these complex processes within the BMPs ( Lin and Colle 2009 ; Morrison et al. 2009

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David J. Purnell and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

, an operational radar was also added to the National Weather Service (NWS) Doppler network at Langley Hill, Washington. Located southwest of the Olympics, this radar complements the Camano Island radar on the opposite side ( Fig. 1a ). Building on this newfound infrastructure, the Olympics Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) in winter 2015/16 ( Houze et al. 2017 ) intensively observed numerous Olympics precipitation events. OLYMPEX sought to gain process understanding and to verify satellite

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