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Kevin Bachmann, Christian Keil, George C. Craig, Martin Weissmann, and Christian A. Welzbacher

1. Introduction Convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models underpin a step change for operational forecasting centers in their struggle to predict thunderstorms and convective precipitation ( Clark et al. 2016 ) as they allow some key issues to be addressed. First, the intrinsically limited predictability of the small scales, including convection, necessitates the use of ensembles to generate probabilistic forecasts and assess their confidence ( Lorenz 1969 ; Slingo and

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Tobias Kremer, Elmar Schömer, Christian Euler, and Michael Riemer

conditions have been taken from archived operational analysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The simulation employs rotated spherical coordinates ( Doms and Schättler 2002 ), with the model equator running approximately through the center of the domain at 35°N. This rotation of the coordinate system minimizes the convergence of the meridians such that the grid spacing, specified in degrees latitude and longitude, is approximately constant. The results will be presented in

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Michael Maier-Gerber, Michael Riemer, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Enrico Di Muzio, and Ron McTaggart-Cowan

were associated with the TT of Chris, before the results in terms of predictability are presented in section 4 . The findings and conclusions from this study are discussed in section 5 . 2. Data and methods a. Data The present case study is based on gridded, 6-hourly operational analysis and ensemble forecast data from the ECMWF. To assess the evolution of predictability, consecutive ensemble forecasts initialized at 0000 UTC between 10 June and 19 June 2012—equivalent to 9.5 (7) days prior to

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Marlene Baumgart, Paolo Ghinassi, Volkmar Wirth, Tobias Selz, George C. Craig, and Michael Riemer

1. Introduction Weather prediction has improved significantly in the past decades ( Bauer et al. 2015 ). Forecast dropouts, however, do still occur in operational numerical weather prediction models ( Rodwell et al. 2013 , 2018 ). Because of the multiscale nature of atmospheric dynamics, there may always be an intrinsic limit of predictability even if model errors and initial-condition errors occur only on the smallest resolved scale ( Lorenz 1969 ). Small-scale errors associated with moist

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Stephan Rasp and Sebastian Lerch

1. Introduction Numerical weather prediction based on physical models of the atmosphere has improved continuously since its inception more than four decades ago ( Bauer et al. 2015 ). In particular, the emergence of ensemble forecasts—simulations with varying initial conditions and/or model physics—added another dimension by quantifying the flow-dependent uncertainty. Yet despite these advances the raw forecasts continue to exhibit systematic errors that need to be corrected using statistical

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Marlene Baumgart, Michael Riemer, Volkmar Wirth, Franziska Teubler, and Simon T. K. Lang

. Res. , 101 , 1435 – 1456 , . 10.1029/95JD02674 Bauer , P. , A. Thorpe , and G. Brunet , 2015 : The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction . Nature , 525 , 47 – 55 , . 10.1038/nature14956 Boer , G. J. , 1984 : A spectral analysis of predictability and error in an operational forecast system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 1183 – 1197 ,<1183:ASAOPA>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Mirjam Hirt, Stephan Rasp, Ulrich Blahak, and George C. Craig

, we retune the perturbation amplitude α tuning to 1.5 to match the precipitation amplitude of the original PSP scheme. For operational use, this choice would have to be revisited to produce the best overall precipitation forecast over a long test period. Although a clear overall improvement in forecast skill scores was not demonstrated in the preliminary evaluation here, the specific impacts of the changes to the scheme were as expected. In particular, PSP2 maintains the desired effect of the

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

transport, which may impact both the occurrence frequency and predictability of subseasonal regimes on basin to hemispheric length scales. The Subseasonal to Seasonal Project database ( ; Vitart et al. 2017 ), which provides access to subseasonal to seasonal forecasts from 11 operational centers, could be a valuable resource for such investigations. On still longer time scales, the influence of a warming climate on the downstream impact of ET, in particular, is another aspect that

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

( section 6 ). We conclude with a summary and discussion of our results in section 7 . 2. Methods To investigate the mesoscale structure of parcel ascent, numerical simulations were conducted with the nonhydrostatic, limited-area weather forecasting model,Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO; Baldauf et al. 2011 ), which, following the COSMO-DE operational setup, has a horizontal grid spacing of 2.8 km and 50 terrain-following levels in the vertical. The vertical grid spacing decreases from

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

; moreover, the forecast became rather poor after a lead time of as little as 5 days. The latter result seems to be at odds with the commonly held view that large-scale phenomena such as RWPs should be predictable on a rather long time scale. However, this evaluation was for a single case only involving a single forecast model; further systematic studies are required to possibly generalize these results. Regarding the waveguide, several operational forecast models are fraught with a spurious decrease of

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