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Peter Sheridan and Simon Vosper

1. Introduction The Sierra Nevada range is a well-known source of strong mountain waves, downslope windstorms, and turbulence associated with lee-wave rotors, which represent hazards to aviation, residents, and property and are difficult for forecasters to predict ( Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ; Grubisic and Lewis 2004 ). Continued increase in the resolution of operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is expected to improve forecasts as the phenomena become more explicitly resolved

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Qingfang Jiang, Ming Liu, and James D. Doyle

optimum interpolation analysis of upper-air sounding, surface, commercial aircraft, and satellite data sources that are quality controlled and blended with the 12-h COAMPS forecast fields. Lateral boundary conditions for the outermost grid mesh are derived from Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) forecast fields. The 36-h forecast period runs from 0000 UTC 25 March to 1200 UTC 26 March with a data output frequency of 5 min. b. Aerosol model A dust microphysical aerosol model

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Thomas Raab and Georg Mayr

would also have to be called rotor. To avoid misconceptions we have decided to use the more general term “horizontal vortex.” The aims of the study are to examine measurements along the surface from a weather station on wheels (WOW) and along vertical profiles on the upstream and downstream side from operational and research radiosondes to describe different settings for windstorms down the Sierra Nevada into Owens Valley (OV) in California during the Sierra Rotors Project (SRP; Grubišić and

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