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Edson E. Sano, Laerte G. Ferreira, and Alfredo R. Huete

soybean and corn). Nowadays, cerrado is the main agricultural province in Brazil and is the country’s most severely threatened biome, requiring a prompt, continuous, and precise mapping and monitoring. To date, the majority of the studies related to the cerrado’s seasonal and land-cover monitoring have been based on optical remote sensing technology. França and Setzer ( França and Setzer 1998 ) as well as Mantovani and Pereira ( Mantovani and Pereira 1998 ) focused on the use of Advanced Very High

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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

technique requires spectral reflectance bundles [ ρ pv ( λ ), ρ npv ( λ ), ρ bare ( λ )] that encompass the common variation in canopy and soil properties. Asner ( Asner 1998 ) and Asner et al. ( Asner et al. 2003a ; Asner et al. 2004a ) collected these spectral data using full optical range field spectroradiometers (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, Colorado) during field campaigns conducted from 1996 to 2000 ( Figure 2 ). The spectral end-member database encompasses the common variation in

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Cuizhen Wang, Jiaguo Qi, and Mark Cochrane

canopies and open area. During the dry season in the Amazon grasses and leaf litter in open areas are senescent and have similar spectral properties to soils. Therefore, the green tree canopy and open area have distinct spectral signatures in remotely sensed data. The spectral response of the pixel in logged forests is thus the collective contribution of these two components. The canopy fractional cover is determined by the area of tree canopies in one pixel. Any satellite image with moderate to coarse

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Piyachat Ratana, Alfredo R. Huete, and Laerte Ferreira

properties such as fractional vegetation cover, biomass, leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; Asrar et al. 1984 ; Asrar et al. 1992 ; Baret 1995 ; Sellers 1985 ), and net primary production (NPP; Tucker and Sellers 1986 ; Running and Nemani 1988 ). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra platform was launched on 18 December 1999 as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing

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Andrew J. Elmore, Gregory P. Asner, and R. Flint Hughes

largely replaced native vegetation. Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass), P. setaceum (fountain grass), and Melinus minuteflora (molasses grass) are among the common invading species across the dry portions of Hawaii. Since introduction, these grasses have expanded in extent and now exist in monospecific stands in many areas ( Figure 2 ). 3. Methods 3.1. Spectral mixture analysis Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) ( Adams et al. 1986 ) was used to estimate three ecosystem structural properties

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Jeffrey T. Morisette, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Alberto Setzer, Wilfrid Schroeder, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

satellite-derived fire products to other fire-related LBA projects, including, but not limited to, Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes Project 3: Characterization of aerosol optical properties and solar flux for NASA’s LBA-Ecology program (LBA-ECO); Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes Project 10: Tropical biomass fires and tropospheric chemistry: chemistry and production of smoke in Brazil; Land Cover and Land Use Change Project 2: Land-cover/land-use change and carbon dynamics in an expanding frontier in western

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