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Derek J. Posselt, Andrew R. Jongeward, Chuan-Yuan Hsu, and Gerald L. Potter

objects are defined by Xu et al. (2005 , 2007 , 2008) to be coherent regions of contiguous cloud with properties that conform to a set of cloud system type criteria. Thresholds on cloud-top height, optical depth, and cloud fraction (determined from higher spatial resolution VIRS data within each footprint) are used to identify cloud objects, and each CERES field of view is classified according to type. A search algorithm is then applied that identifies adjacent pixels with similar properties, and

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Behnjamin J. Zib, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, and Aaron Kennedy

, including cloud optical depth and cloud height, should be investigated in the future as they also play key roles in determining the SW-down flux ( Dong and Mace 2003 ; Dong et al. 2010 ). Besides the cloud properties, the distribution of aerosol and other trace gases such as ozone and water vapor contained in the reanalyses can have a significant influence on the reanalyses' radiation parameterizations. Furthermore, the surface albedo can be an important factor in determining the amount of SW-down flux

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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

compared to MODIS. This tends to weaken the TOA net SW CRE. But the early growth of MERRA high plus middle clouds into a cold atmosphere ( Fig. 4 ) means that the LW CRE peaks earlier than is seen in SRB. These two offsetting factors contribute to the agreement in net TOA flux between MERRA and the GEWEX SRB observations. The net CRE is obviously sensitive not just to the amount of cloudiness present, but also to the height (temperature) and optical properties of the clouds. To assess the intraseasonal

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

. In particular, the observation-minus-background departures are computed with greater temporal accuracy, and a dynamic constraint on noise is employed to improve the balance properties of the analysis solution. Unlike CFSR, which also uses the GSI, GEOS-5 uses an incremental analysis update (IAU) procedure ( Bloom et al. 1996 ) in which the analysis correction is applied to the forecast model gradually, through an additional tendency term in the model equations during the corrector segment ( Fig

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