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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

the field. In addition, the limited experimental data on dust optical properties at infrared wavelengths and the large uncertainties in the spatially and temporally dependent particle properties—size, shape, and composition ( Sokolik and Toon 1999 )—have indeed made it a difficult challenge to constrain the LW impact. The term “aerosol radiative forcing” is now commonly used for gauging changes in the radiative fluxes due to anthropogenic aerosols since the beginning of the industrial era (∼1750

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

. Foley , A. K. Heidinger , and C. S. Velden , 2006 : New evidence for a relationship between Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and African dust outbreaks. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L19813 . doi:10.1029/2006GL026408 . Fernald , F. G. , 1984 : Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: Some comments. Appl. Opt. , 23 , 652 – 653 . Ferrare , R. A. , and Coauthors , 2000 : Comparison of aerosol optical properties and water vapor among ground and airborne lidars and Sun

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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

suitable tools to investigate the role of the SAL not only on the scale of cyclone formation but also from the point of view of the large-scale transport from its source region, and can therefore represent the possible modifications of the SAL, in terms of thermodynamical properties and shear, as the waves propagate over thousands of kilometers. At the same time, it is shown that a model horizontal resolution, not lower than a quarter of a degree, is needed to unveil some of the SAL’s thermodynamic and

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds at a given time cover about 20% of tropical latitudes and contribute significantly to regional and global radiation budgets ( Rossow and Schiffer 1999 ). Optically thick tropical cirrus are produced primarily through deep convection and generate as much as 25% of the earth’s net cloud radiative forcing ( Hartmann et al. 1992 ). The primary impact of thin versus thick cirrus is on the shortwave energy budget, and the albedo of these ice clouds depends on their

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Chuntao Liu, Earle R. Williams, Edward J. Zipser, and Gary Burns

UTC time, suitable for comparison with the relative variation of the electric field derived from the Carnegie curve ( Israel 1973 ). Another important consideration is the ±35° latitude restriction for the intended global analysis. Thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds at higher latitudes also contribute to the global circuit. Appeal to lightning observations made with the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), sampling from the Arctic to Antarctica, suggest that this higher-latitude contribution

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