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Cenlin He, Yoshi Takano, Kuo-Nan Liou, Ping Yang, Qinbin Li, and Fei Chen

albedo radiative forcing due to BC–snow internal mixing. Nevertheless, observations have shown that nonspherical snow grains are ubiquitous in real snowpack ( Dominé et al. 2003 ; Erbe et al. 2003 ). Many modeling efforts (e.g., Fu et al. 1999 ; Neshyba et al. 2003 ; Grenfell et al. 2005 ) have been made to investigate the shape effect of ice crystals on optical properties by using an effective size (e.g., equal-volume-to-area ratio), which works well for extinction efficiency and single

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Anthony J. Baran, Peter Hill, Kalli Furtado, Paul Field, and James Manners

underestimated by those models ( Baran 2012 ). Moreover, the parameterization of high clouds can affect the amount of low clouds predicted by the model through the vertical profile of radiative heating in the model, as shown by McFarquhar et al. (2003) . To quantify the role of the ice cloud in the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and cloud, it is of primary importance to construct accurate parameterizations of its bulk optical properties. Unfortunately, this is currently far from being achieved

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Jason Cole, Howard W. Barker, Norman G. Loeb, and Knut von Salzen

well as their optical properties, macrophysical structure, and resulting radiative fluxes. This sort of analysis is best done when using cloud properties and radiative fluxes that are coincident, and physically consistent, in space and time. A common approach to evaluate GCMs is to use histograms of cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness which are then used to relate biases in cloud properties to biases in all-sky TOA CREs ( Zhang et al. 2005 ; Wyant et al. 2006 ). However, this can be

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Chao Xu, Yaoming Ma, Kun Yang, and Chao You

, 2012 : CALIPSO observations of transatlantic dust: Vertical stratification and effect of clouds . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 11 339 – 11 354 , . 10.5194/acp-12-11339-2012 Yao , T. D. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Third Pole Environment (TPE) . Environ. Dev. , 3 , 52 – 64 , . 10.1016/j.envdev.2012.04.002 Yi , B. Q. , P. Yang , and B. A. Baum , 2014 : Impact of pollution on the optical properties of trans-Pacific East

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Zachary A. Eitzen, Kuan-Man Xu, and Takmeng Wong

different physical properties of marine boundary layer clouds and found that optical depth generally decreased with SST. The changes in cloud and radiative properties with SST are entwined with changes in both dynamic and thermodynamic states of the atmosphere. This has been recognized by many studies and many attempts have been made to link the changes with SST in cloud and radiative properties with those in selected dynamic and thermodynamic measures (e.g., Bony et al. 1997 , 2004 ; Norris and

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Gyula Molnar and Wei-Chyung Wang

JOURNAL OF CLIMATEVOLUME S814GYULA MOLNARAtmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge. MassachusettsWEI-CHYUNG WANGAtmospheric Sciences Research Center. Sicie University of New York, Albany, New York(Manuscript received 29 August 1990, in final form 12 August 1991)ABSTRACTCloud optical properties, in particular the optical thickness r, affect the earth-atmosphere radiation budget,and their potential changes associated with climate changes may induce feedback effect. A one

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T. H. Lindner and J. Li

approximation), the only cloud optical property needed in the radiative transfer calculation is the absorption coefficient. To avoid the complicated Mie calculation, a parameterization of the absorption coefficient in terms of physical quantities that can be generated in climate models is needed. Chýlek and Ramaswamy (1982) proposed a simple parameterization of the emittance for water clouds in the infrared. A more sophisticated scheme was proposed by Chýlek et al. (1992) . If scattering is considered in

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Tianle Yuan and Zhanqing Li

the cloud phase is ice. Cloud phase is extremely important as water and ice hydrometeors have completely different optical properties ( Platnick et al. 2003 ). Treating water clouds as ice clouds, or vice versa, will inevitably lead to errors in the retrievals, which need to be avoided for our purpose. b. DCC definition There is no precise definition of a deep convective cloud using just passive remote sensing measurements. In practice, BT has been used to define DCC by setting a threshold of low

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Judith A. Curry and Elizabeth E. Ebert

CURRY AND EBERT1267NOVEMBER 1992Annual Cycle of Radiation Fluxes over the Arctic Ocean:Sensitivity to Cloud Optical PropertiesJUDITH A. CURRYProgram in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, ColoradoELIZABETH E. EBERTBureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia(Manuscript received 10 June 1991, in final form 21 January 1992)ABSTRACTThe relationship between cloud optical properties and the radiative fluxes over the

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Anthony J. Baran, Peter Hill, David Walters, Steven C. Hardiman, Kalli Furtado, Paul R. Field, and James Manners

TTL, as found by Lawson et al. (2008) ; also, Lee et al. (2009) showed that these clouds may exert a net radiative effect on the order of about 1.1 W m −2 . In general, the role of cirrus in either heating or cooling the TTL depends not only on the visible optical depth but also on the microphysics and the scattering and absorption properties of atmospheric ice ( Baran et al. 2014a , hereinafter B014a ; Yang et al. 2015 , and references therein). There have been aircraft campaigns that have

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