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Francis S. Binkowski, Saravanan Arunachalam, Zachariah Adelman, and Joseph P. Pinto

distributions used in CMAQ ( Binkowski and Shankar 1995 ; Binkowski and Roselle 2003 ) as well as for the range of refractive indices of internally mixed atmospheric aerosol particles. The real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices for three particle-constituent groups (water soluble, sea salt, and dustlike) are taken from the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) software package ( Hess et al. 1998 ). The refractive indices for soot particles are from Table 1 of Horvath (1995) . The

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

properties (e.g., sulfates, nitrates). In addition to the anthropogenic PM, another factor contributing to PM concentration is the marine environment and the production of salt spray and dimethylsulfide (DMS; Kouvarakis and Mihalopoulos 2002 ; Herut et al. 1999 ). The North African region is responsible for the mobilization and transport of Saharan dust, which is considered of major importance to the total PM loading in the GMR ( Rodriguez et al. 2001 ). d. Paths and scales of transport and

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Ho-Chun Huang, Xin-Zhong Liang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael Caughey, and Allen Williams

; Lu et al. 2000 ; Doran et al. 2003 ), as well as atmospheric optical properties for photolytic reactions (e.g., cloud cover and incident solar radiation). Therefore, it is important to understand the potential impact of climate change on future air quality and prepare possible solutions to alleviate and/or resolve any significant negative impacts. To identify solutions to air quality problems, a modeling system, including meteorological conditions, emissions, and air quality components, often is

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