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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

1. Introduction It is well known that human-induced landscape changes have many impacts on local and regional-scale climate. Changes due to urbanization directly impact the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region by altering the natural energy and hydrologic balances ( Oke 1984 ; Schmid and Oke 1992 ). The most documented effect linked to urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI), in which the air above the urban canopy is usually warmer than the air in the rural

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

include 15 vegetation types in addition to bare ground, lake, and glacier. Each vegetation type has its own leaf area and stem area indices, root distribution, optical properties, and canopy heights at its top and bottom ( Dai et al. 2003 ). The improvements in the CLM4 compared to its previous version include a refinement of the global plant function type (PFT), a better description of wetland and lake distributions, and more realistic optical properties for grasslands and croplands. In particular

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