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Randy J. Chase, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

1. Introduction Despite being confined to high latitudes and altitudes when occurring at the surface, snow can be related to approximately 50% by number ( Field and Heymsfield 2015 ) and approximately 60% by mass accumulation ( Heymsfield et al. 2020 ) of all precipitation across cold and warm climates. Thus, the accurate retrieval of snow properties is required for an accurate quantification of the hydrologic cycle. Furthermore, the quantitative retrieval of snowfall properties is invaluable

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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

( Førland et al. 2011 ). Additionally, the measurement of snow particles and the identification of the true amount of snow at the ground is a challenging task due to the complex and strongly variable microphysical properties of snow and ice crystals. For classical precipitation gauges, the liquid equivalent amount of snow is a direct measure; however, it is prone to large uncertainties especially in windy conditions ( Rasmussen et al. 2012 ) and still only a point information of precipitation. Radar

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

F. Weng , 2010 : Uncertainties in microwave optical properties of frozen precipitation: Implications for remote sensing and data assimilation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3471 – 3487 , . 10.1175/2010JAS3520.1 Kulie , M. S. , M. J. Hiley , R. Bennartz , S. Kneifel , and S. Tanelli , 2014 : Triple frequency radar reflectivity signatures of snow: Observations and comparisons to theoretical ice particle scattering models . J. Appl. Meteor

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Paloma Borque, Kirstin J. Harnos, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

presence of supercooled liquid water ( Brown 1982 ). Baumgardner et al. (2017) and references therein describe the different in situ probes and measurements that are used to characterize the microphysical properties of ice clouds. Two-dimensional cloud probe data from the UND Citation were processed by the System for Optical Array Probe Data Analysis (SODA) software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. PSDs were obtained from a combination of observations from the Cloud Imaging

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

inhomogeneity on the microwave optical properties of graupel and hailstones . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 55 , 6366 – 6378 , . 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2726994 Vivekanandan , J. , J. Turk , and V. N. Bringi , 1991 : Ice water path estimation and characterization using passive microwave radiometry . J. Appl. Meteor. , 30 , 1407 – 1421 ,<1407:IWPEAC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1991)030<1407:IWPEAC>2.0.CO;2

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Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Timothy J. Lang, Simone Tanelli, and Gian Franco Sacco

microphysical properties of the observed particles but also on the frequency of the signal. In this section, we show how the hail presence in the column affects measurements underneath hail shafts by comparing DPR observations to synthetic S-band measurements that are subject to much smaller attenuation ( Baldini et al. 2012 ). The database has been stratified according to the hail fraction; for example, no hail ( ) and different hail-contamination thresholds, that is, 5%–10%, 10%–15%, 15%–25%, 25%–40%, and

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