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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

variability in precipitation. On the other hand, precipitation can also act as the driver of variability in and through collision–coalescence. As pointed out by Hudson and Frisbie (1991) , collision–coalescence can efficiently remove CCN within droplets from the atmosphere even with light precipitation rate ( Feingold et al. 1996 ; Wood 2006 ). An evaporated coalesced droplet only leaves behind one residual haze particle that is made up of the nuclei from many droplets, the so-called coalescence

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Jothiram Vivekanandan, Virendra P. Ghate, Jorgen B. Jensen, Scott M. Ellis, and M. Christian Schwartz

observations complement each other by representing small and large droplets in a DSD spectrum; in the present study, they are used to retrieve characteristic droplet diameter. Measurements from Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS) ( Wood et al. 2011 ) and Cloud Systems Evolution in the Trades (CSET; Albrecht et al. 2019 ) field campaigns were analyzed. Since detailed profiles of liquid droplet spectra were not collected during CSET, liquid droplet

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

1. Introduction The transition from overcast stratocumulus to more broken shallow cumulus clouds is a conspicuous feature of all of Earth’s subtropical oceanic basins. The accompanying change in the top-of-the-atmosphere albedo, and the contribution to global hydrologic cycle through evaporation off the ocean’s surface as the boundary layers deepen, has inspired research into the processes underlying the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition (SCT). The original studies established that the

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

camera mounted on the starboard/right wing of the GV. Shown are clouds observed along the flight path in the downstream direction (east to west) from (right) unbroken uniform stratus to (middle) mesoscale complexes to (left) shallow cumuli. More recent regional observational and modeling studies have also focused on the MBL cloud, aerosol, and precipitation structures in cloud regimes associated with the transition. During the Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

intensity guidance improving? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 , 387 – 398 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00240.1 Dunion , J. P. , 2011 : Rewriting the climatology of the tropical North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea atmosphere . J. Climate , 24 , 893 – 908 , . 10.1175/2010JCLI3496.1 Dvorak , V. F. , 1975 : Tropical cyclone intensity analysis and forecasting from satellite imagery . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 103 , 420 – 430

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