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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

). Without the insulating effect of sea ice, the newly exposed warm surface waters will flux heat and water vapor into the overlying atmosphere, warming and moistening the lower troposphere (e.g., Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Winds will mix the excess heat and moisture southward over the adjacent continents, increasing temperature and precipitation at high latitudes ( Deser et al. 2010 ). Northern land areas are also expected to experience a decrease in surface temperature variance ( Screen et al. 2015a

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

constructively or destructively interfere with the climatological stationary wave, with the resulting amplification or deamplification of the extratropical flow resulting in more or less heat and moisture (which can change the downward IR) transport into the Arctic, leading to changes in both the Arctic SAT and Arctic sea ice ( Henderson et al. 2014 ; Lee 2014 ; Park et al. 2015 ). Several recent studies ( Cohen et al. 2007 , 2014 ) have shown a link between snow cover anomalies over Eurasia and planetary

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

and Wallace 2000 ) and the Pacific–South American (PSA; Mo and Ghil 1987 ) pattern. The SAM is characterized by out-of-phase sea level pressure (SLP) variations between midlatitudes (~40°S) and high latitudes (~65°S). Previous studies have suggested that the SAM is generated primarily by the internal dynamics of the SH atmosphere, which involves eddy–mean flow interactions (e.g., Yu and Hartmann 1993 ; Feldstein and Lee 1998 ; Hartmann and Lo 1998 ; Limpasuvan and Hartmann 2000 ; Lorenz and

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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

J. M. Wallace , 1981 : Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 813 – 829 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 . Hoskins , B. J. , and D. J. Karoly , 1981 : The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing . J. Atmos. Sci. , 38 , 1179 – 1196 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:TSLROA>2.0.CO;2 . Hung , M.-P. , J.-L. Lin , W. Wang , D. Kim , T

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

1. Introduction Improving our understanding of the dynamics of the atmosphere–ocean–sea ice system and the connecting mechanisms between the high and low latitudes has become increasingly important to climate science in the face of a rapidly warming world. The polar regions and the cryosphere in both hemispheres are active components in global climate. For example, changes within the polar regions dictate the strength of the thermal gradient between the tropics and the poles. Climate changes

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