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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

bin, and the contributions from individual diabatic processes to these changes, as a function of time in each cyclone. e. Integral interpretation of PV tracers: Circulation Ertel PV is defined as (e.g., Haynes and McIntyre 1987 ) where ρ is density; is the three-dimensional absolute velocity, with being a position vector from Earth’s center and being the planetary angular velocity; and is the gradient operator in geographic coordinates. The absolute circulation on an isentropic surface

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Jeffrey M. Chagnon and Suzanne L. Gray

), diabatic Rossby waves (e.g., Parker and Thorpe 1995 ; Moore and Montgomery 2004 ; Moore et al. 2013 ), and forecast error growth (e.g., Brennan et al. 2008 ; Davies and Didone 2013 ). In the absence of frictional and diabatic processes, PV is materially conserved. Therefore, PV provides a convenient means to characterize the large-scale structure of the atmosphere and its evolution in mid- and high latitudes where the planetary vorticity is nonnegligible. Climatologically, PV increases with height

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

: Planetary flow patterns in the atmosphere . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 66 , 68 – 87 . Sanders , F. , 1986 : Explosive cyclogenesis in the west-central North Atlantic Ocean, 1981–84. Part I: Composite structure and mean behavior . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 114 , 1781 – 1794 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<1781:ECITWC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<1781:ECITWC>2.0.CO;2 Skamarock , W. C. , and Coauthors , 2008 : A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

are better defined at this level and other sting-jet studies have shown that models have difficulty mixing momentum into the planetary boundary layer (e.g., Parton et al. 2009 ; Smart and Browning 2013 ). In this case, the 10-m model winds are about 10–15 m s −1 weaker than the 925-hPa winds, and the QuikSCAT winds in Fig. 1 are closer to the 925-hPa model winds at the time of the overpass (not shown). At 1200 UTC 7 December ( Figs. 2a,b ), 925-hPa winds exceeded 35 m s −1 in the warm sector

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Geraint Vaughan, Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, and Christopher Dearden

Illingworth 2011 ). The vertical structure of the atmosphere was monitored using the U.K. Mesosphere–Stratosphere–Troposphere (MST) radar ( Vaughan 2002 ), a VHF wind-profiling radar operating at a frequency of 46.5 MHz and located at Capel Dewi (52.42°N, 4.01°W) near Aberystwyth in mid-Wales (see Fig. 9 for the location of Capel Dewi). MST radar data can be used to identify tropopause folds based on measurements of echo power [due to quasi-specular reflection from gradients in static stability and

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Matthew R. Clark and Douglas J. Parker

with a mid-Atlantic States cold frontal rainband . Natl. Wea. Dig. , 24 , 37 – 51 . Grumm , R. H. , and M. Glazewski , 2004 : Thunderstorm types associated with the “broken-S” radar signature. 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P7.1. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/11aram22sls/techprogram/paper_81537.htm .] Haurwitz , B. , 1949 : The instability of wind discontinuities and shear zones in planetary atmospheres . J. Meteor. , 6 , 200

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