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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

. Clough , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated- k model for the longwave . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 16 663 – 16 682 . Pleim , J. E. , and A. Xiu , 1995 : Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in mesoscale models . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 16 – 32 . Shin , H. H. , and S.-Y. Hong , 2011 : Intercomparison of planetary boundary-layer parametrizations in the WRF model for a single day

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C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

, Scintec AG, Germany) and two sonic anemometers (USA-1, Metek GmbH, Germany) have been part of a suite of equipment installed across the city of Helsinki, Finland, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland ( Fig. 1 ; Table 1 ). They are a part of the Helsinki Urban Boundary-Layer Atmosphere Network (URBAN; ; Wood et al. 2013a ), with increasing activity in observing the urban boundary layer in particular since 2004. The site is characterized by the vicinity of the sea and the strong

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Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

. , 132 , 495 – 518 . Bright, D. R. , and Mullen S. L. , 2002 : Short-range ensemble forecasts of precipitation during the Southwest monsoon . Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 1080 – 1100 . Doviak, R. J. , and Berger M. J. , 1980 : Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer . Radio Sci. , 15 , 297 – 317 . Doviak, R. J. , and Zrnić D. S. , 2006 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2nd ed. Dover Publications, 562 pp. Elmore, K. L. , Heinselman P. L

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Laura Bianco, Daniel Gottas, and James M. Wilczak

bottom are the range-corrected SNR, radial velocity, and spectral width measured on a radial antenna beam. For the day on the left (14 March 2010), the nighttime is characterized by a stable layer with convection starting after sunrise (1423 UTC). The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height grows to its maximum, reached a few hours after solar noon (2019 UTC), with the inversion layer revealed by a layer of enhanced SNR. Convective plumes are revealed during daytime in the radial velocity panel, while

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Elías Lau, Scott McLaughlin, Frank Pratte, Bob Weber, David Merritt, Maikel Wise, Gary Zimmerman, Matthew James, and Megan Sloan

. Height coverage is comparable to other typical installations with an operating frequency around 1 GHz (e.g., May et al. 1988 ). Figure 5 shows profiles collected over Horn Point in Cambridge, Maryland. The profiles show a dynamic temporal evolution of the temperature in the lower atmosphere with a descending layer of temperature inversion. Outliers above 1400 m are also present likely because of low sensitivity at those times and heights. Fig . 5. RASS virtual temperature profiles measured with

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S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

160 m is measured with wind vanes on booms directed to the south. A pulsed wind Doppler lidar (Leosphere WLS70) was operated during the campaign and was located about 20 m west of the meteorological mast. The wind Doppler lidar is equipped with a rotating silicon prism that provides an optical scanning cone of 15° to zenith. The lidar scans the atmosphere at four azimuth angles separated by 90°. One 360° full scan (rotation) is performed approximately every 30 s. The Doppler shift

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

resolution under all weather conditions ( Gutman et al. 2004 ). Also, unlike microwave satellite retrievals, GPS can provide accurate water vapor estimates over land. Peixoto and Oort (1992) showed that approximately 80% of the water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere at midlatitudes exists in the lowest 700 mb, so IWV serves as a good proxy for the low-level moisture that fuels precipitation. For example, using four winters of IWV measurements collected on the northern coast of California

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

spectra in the convective planetary boundary layer . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 132 , 205 – 226 . Mann, J. , 1994 : The spatial structure of neutral atmospheric surface-layer turbulence . J. Fluid Mech. , 273 , 141 – 168 . Mann, J. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer . Meteor. Z. , 18 , 135 – 140 . Mann, J. , Peña A. , Bingöl F. , Wagner R. , and Courtney M. S. , 2010 : Lidar scanning of

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