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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

environments supporting it with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, as well as an incomplete understanding of environment–cloud interactions supporting growing congestus (e.g., Crook 1996 ; Weckwerth and Parsons 2006 ; Houston and Niyogi 2007 ; Lock and Houston 2014 ; Rousseau-Rizzi et al. 2017 ; Weckwerth et al. 2019 ). For CI to occur, the atmosphere requires three fundamental ingredients: static instability, moisture, and a triggering mechanism (e.g., surface airmass boundaries, orographic

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

), but each member uses a different combination of physical parameterizations (cumulus, PBL, microphysics). Cumulus schemes include Kain (2004) and Grell and Freitas (2014) , New Tiedtke ( Zhang and Wang 2017 ), and Tiedtke ( Zhang et al. 2011 ). Microphysics schemes include Thompson et al. (2008) and Morrison et al. (2009) , and WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6; Hong and Lim 2006 ); Milbrandt and Yau (2005) . Planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes include Yonsei University

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

the Amazon rain forest to the north via the SALLJ and from the subtropical Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, which destabilizes the near-surface atmosphere. With sufficient topographic forcing provided by the SDC and the Andean foothills, the capping inversion is broken and convective initiation occurs ( Rasmussen and Houze 2016 ). Storms initially grow very deep and are capable of producing large hail, strong winds, and flooding rains ( Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). As storms move east off the terrain

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

of ~ 31 km (TL639 spectral grid) and 137 hybrid sigma–pressure levels in the vertical (with the top level located at 0.01 hPa, an altitude of about 80 km). ERA5 uses its 4DVAR data assimilation system at every 6 h in reanalysis mode. “Surface” or “single level” data are also available, containing 2D parameters such as precipitation, 2-m temperature, top-of-atmosphere radiation, and vertical integrals over the entire atmosphere. We retrieved the data at 0.25° × 0.25° horizontal resolution at all

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

affect the moisture content of the planetary boundary layer. Differences in land cover can, for instance, produce horizontal gradients in heat fluxes. This can impact the height of the planetary boundary layer indirectly affecting its moisture content by changing the entrainment rate at its top. Surface inhomogeneities can also contribute to enhancing the low-level moisture gradient through mesoscale frontogenesis associated with solenoidal circulations ( Sun and Ogura 1979 ). Schultz et al. (2007

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