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Haile Xue, Jian Li, Tingting Qian, and Hongping Gu

northern Norway ( Grønås and Sandvik 1999 ). These downslope windstorms indicate that a strong interaction can occur between the local mountain and upper atmosphere over a wide spectrum of topography. The multiscale topographies on the Tibetan Plateau have a high impact on the regional and global weather and climate ( Shi et al. 2008 ; Boos and Kuang 2010 ; Shi et al. 2017 ; Zhao et al. 2018 ). The precipitation bias over orographic regions, especially over the Tibetan Plateau, is higher than in

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Bruce Briegleb and V. Ramanathan

(see Appendix A) calculates the absorbed solar flux Ax(t) in the entire surface-atmosphere column. The reflected solar flux is defined asRx(t) = Ix(t) - Ax(t). Using the reflected and incident solar fluxes we define the planetary albedos as ~04~um ~fO24I~JO ]~4~rn ~f024 dtRx(t) ] [ dX dtlx(t), (1) .2 ~m .2 tJmthe diurnally and spectrally averaged planetary albedo;IOO ' , i , , i i ~ , i i [ 90 ~ PRESENT

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J. D. Lin and Shu Fen Sun

's parameterization of the planetary boundary layer is adapted to drive a hydrologic model. Themethod converts the atmospheric conditions measured at the anemometer height at one site to the mean valuesin the planetary boundary layer; it then uses the planetary boundary layer parameterization and the hydrologicvariables to calculate the fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture at the atmosphere-land interface for a differentsite. A simplified hydrologic model is used for a simulation study of soil moisture and

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Robert Frouin and Beth Chertock

presented to generate the first accurate, long-term (84month) climatology of net surface solar irradiance over the global oceans from Nimbus- 7 earth radiation budget(ERB) wide-field-of-view planetary-albedo data. Net surface solar irradiance is computed as the differencebetween the top-of-atmosphere incident solar irrediance (known) and the sum of the solar irradiance reflectedback to space by the earth-atmosphere system (observed) and the solar irradiance absorbed by atmosphericconstituents (modeled

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D. Guedalia, C. Allet, and J. Fontan

diffusion coefficients in the planetary boundary layer fromtwo natural radioactive tracers, radon (Rn-222) and ThB (Pb-212), are presented and discussed. In all cases,it is more pertinent to measure vertical exchanges in the lower atmosphere using ThB (10.6 hr half-life)than radon (3.8 days half-life). About 30 vertical profiles of Rn and ThB in the lower troposphere (100-3000 m) are determined overa 12-month period. Vertical eddy coefficient values are calculated according to the various methods

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M. Rieland and R. Stuhlmann

derived from Meteosat data and the surface albedo iscalculated from ERBE clear-sky planetary albedo measurements by applying an atmospheric correction scheme.As results, maps of absorbed solar radiation for the total earth-atmosphere system, the surface, and for theatmosphere are presented for the area of investigation, +60- longitude and latitude. To infer the contributionof clouds, the concept of cloud radiative forcing is applied to these different datasets. It is shown that the solarcloud forcing

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R. L. Hart, F. R. George, L. S. Vanloon, B. B. Hicks, and F. C. Kulhanek

used extensively in recent field investigations of the planetary boundary layer.1. Introduction Recent emphasis on problems concerning atmospheric pollutant transport over distances of the order ~ This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S.Department of Energy.of 1000 km in the United States, Canada, and Europehas resulted in increased interest in the fine structureof the lower atmosphere, particularly in the diurnalcycle of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Therates of

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William D. Sellers

is expressedbasically as a function of the solar constant, the planetary albedo, the transparency of the atmosphere toinfrared radiation, and the turbulent exchange coefficients for the atmosphere and the oceans.The major conclusions of the analysis are that removing the arctic ice cal) would increase annual averagepolar temperatures by no more than 7C, that a decrease of the solar constant by 2-5% might he sufficientto initiate another ice age, and that man's increasing industrial activities may

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Nirupama Raghavan and Swati Basu

MARCH 1988 NIRUPAMA RAGHAVAN AND SWATI BASU 261Prediction of Wind Speed, Direction and Diffusivity under Neutral Conditions for Tall Stacks NIRUPAMA RAGHAVAN AND SWATI BASUCentre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, India(Manuscript received 28 February 1987, in final form 22 August 1987)ABSTRACT A one dimensional model of the neutral planetary boundary layer is used to

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E. Raschke and W. R. Bandeen

top of the atmosphere and associated quantities (albedo and outgoinglongwave radiation) were computed for five successive semimonthly periods from measurements of theradiance of emitted longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation obtained over the entire globe from thesatellite Nimbus II during the period 16 May-28 July 1966. The anisotropy of the reflection characteristicsof the earth-atmosphere system was considered for the first time with gross empirical models derived fromairplane and

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