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Gunther P. Können

The study of rainbowlike features has seen a revival—relationships with properties of the scattering particles have been revisited, and the number of observations in other planetary atmospheres has increased. Detail of a secondary rainbow over Brannenburg, Germany. See Fig. 3 for the full image. If regularly shaped transparent particles of sufficient size are present in the atmosphere and if they are lit by the sun, colored structures may appear at specific locations on the celestial sphere

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Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Duane E. Waliser, Martin J. Miller, Melvyn A. Shapiro, Ghassem R. Asrar, and James Caughey

transported upward into the atmosphere. From there, the heat is radiated back to space and the moisture may condense and form clouds. Some of the condensate grows large enough to fall back to Earth's surface as precipitation. In this regard, moist convection plays a crucial role in the energy and water cycles of the tropics as well as the variability of the tropical climate system. In concert with its effects on the tropics per se, moist convection can generate planetary (Rossby) waves, which affect

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Daniel Leuenberger, Alexander Haefele, Nadja Omanovic, Martin Fengler, Giovanni Martucci, Bertrand Calpini, Oliver Fuhrer, and Andrea Rossa

High-impact weather is often determined by physical processes taking place in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The PBL temperature and moisture distributions determine to a large degree the preconvective environment and the occurrence of thunderstorms (e.g., Koch et al. 2018 ). Findings from impact studies and field experiments corroborate this (e.g., Crook 1996 ; Weckwerth et al. 2004 ; Browning et al. 2007 ; Wulfmeyer et al. 2011 ). Fog and low stratus are common weather phenomena in

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David M. Schultz, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., Stuart Anderson, and Sharon Gardner

Monash Simple Climate Model is a globally resolved energy-balance model ( Dommenget and Flöter 2011 ), Build Your Own Earth is a coupled atmosphere–ocean–sea ice general circulation model. In this article, we describe the model at the heart of Build Your Own Earth, the initial 50 simulations, and how we have employed it in teaching and research. MODEL FORMULATION. The climate model is the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM; Jacob et al. 2001 ), a general circulation model optimized for efficient and

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Phillip B. Chilson, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey F. Kelly, Kenneth W. Howard, Ronald P. Larkin, Robert H. Diehl, John K. Westbrook, T. Adam Kelly, and Thomas H. Kunz

planetary boundary layer and lower free atmosphere (i.e., the aerosphere). A brief historical account can be found in Gauthreaux (2006) . Radar has been thoroughly integrated into research and operational meteorology; however, the same cannot be said for biology. That is not to say that radar has not been incorporated into biological research. There have been significant advancements in ornithology and entomology as a result of radar observations (e.g., Vaughn 1985 ; Reynolds 1988 ; Bruderer 1997a

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Rezaul Mahmood, Megan Schargorodski, Eric Rappin, Melissa Griffin, Patrick Collins, Kevin Knupp, Andrew Quilligan, Ryan Wade, and Kevin Cary

network [please see “Observed data” section in this article and Mahmood et al. (2019) for details], consisting of 72 stations that collects air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and wind direction data. For most variables, the network samples the atmosphere every 3 s, calculates and records observations every 5 min, and distributes them through the World Wide Web. Currently, 38 stations observe soil moisture and soil temperature data at five depths up to 1 m

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Ping Zhao, Xiangde Xu, Fei Chen, Xueliang Guo, Xiangdong Zheng, Liping Liu, Yang Hong, Yueqing Li, Zuo La, Hao Peng, Linzhi Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Shihao Tang, Yimin Liu, Huizhi Liu, Yaohui Li, Qiang Zhang, Zeyong Hu, Jihua Sun, Shengjun Zhang, Lixin Dong, Hezhen Zhang, Yang Zhao, Xiaolu Yan, An Xiao, Wei Wan, Yu Liu, Junming Chen, Ge Liu, Yangzong Zhaxi, and Xiuji Zhou

Integrated monitoring systems for the land surface, boundary layer, troposphere, and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau promote the understanding of the Earth–atmosphere coupled processes and their effects on weather and climate. The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the “sensible heat pump” and the “atmospheric water tower,” modifies monsoon circulations and regional energy and water cycles over Asia ( Wu and Zhang 1998 ; Zhao and Chen 2001a ; Wu et al. 2007 ; Xu et al. 2008b ; Zhou

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Min Xu, Xing Yuan, Tiejun Ling, Hyun I. Choi, Feng Zhang, Ligang Chen, Shuyan Liu, Shenjian Su, Fengxue Qiao, Yuxiang He, Julian X. L. Wang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Wei Gao, Everette Joseph, Vernon Morris, Tsann-Wang Yu, Jimy Dudhia, and John Michalakes

( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Accordingly, we have undertaken a lengthy effort to develop a version of WRF (CWRF) specifically improved for climate time-scale applications. The most crucial improvements targeted interactions between land, atmosphere, and ocean; convection and microphysics; and cloud, aerosol, and radiation, as well as system consistency throughout all process modules ( Liang et al. 2002 , 2004c , 2005b , d , a , c , 2006b ; Xu et al. 2005 ; Choi 2006 ; Choi et al. 2007 ; Choi and

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D. W. Thomson and J. P. Scheib

Improved quantitative display techniques, including digital false-color systems, for use with sodar or other similar remote probing systems are discussed. With sodar the use of a false-color system greatly facilitates real-time measurements of temperature and velocity structure functions, the dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance in the planetary boundary layer of the atmosphere, and the vertical wind and wind shear profiles.

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Elmar R. Reiter

Mountain ranges and high plateaus influence atmospheric circulation patterns on all scales, ranging from ultralong planetary waves to small turbulent eddies. Some of these effects are brought about simply by orographic obstacles acting as barriers to the flow. Of equal importance, however, are the thermal effects of elevated land masses, which can generate considerable baroclinicity. Various time scales have to be considered in the thermal forcing of the atmosphere by large elevated land masses. Diurnal variations of the heating and cooling cycle have been shown to be prominent factors over Tibet. On time scales from days to weeks, the Northern Hemisphere plateaus seem to influence the monsoon circulations. There are strong indications that interseasonal “memory” exists in the heat balance of plateaus that might affect seasonally abnormal monsoon behavior. Such “memory” could be caused by feedback between thermal effects of land masses and “near-resonant” planetary waves.

In order to assess the thermal impact of mountains and plateaus, we need considerably more detailed knowledge of the energy transfer processes between the valley atmosphere, the yet poorly delineated planetary boundary layer over mountains, and the “free atmosphere.” To achieve such knowledge, experimental and theoretical studies involving micro-, meso-, and macroscales will have to intermesh more closely than in the past.

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