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Randal D. Koster, Yehui Chang, and Siegfried D. Schubert

general circulation of the atmosphere, motivating the GCM experiments discussed below. 3. Focused experiments A hypothesis consistent with Fig. 1 is that the soil moisture pattern seen in Fig. 1a persists into the summer and, during July, affects the surface turbulent fluxes and (perhaps) precipitation in such a way as to promote the wave pattern seen in Fig. 1d , perhaps by inducing a traveling planetary wave in the troposphere to phase lock over the continent. The wave, in turn, might then

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Richard Davy

1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth is a very important quantity within the climate and climate models. The PBL governs the turbulent exchange of heat, moisture, carbon, momentum, and aerosols between the surface and the atmosphere. The depth of the PBL is also a controlling factor in determining the near-surface concentration of pollutants ( Arya 1999 ; Akimoto 2003 ; Quan et al. 2014 ) and heat ( Oke 1976 , 1995 ; Davy and Esau 2016 ). It has been shown that the

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Nicholas J. Lutsko and Max Popp

in radiative equilibrium Finally, if the stratosphere is in radiative equilibrium the surface temperature is given by (section c of the appendix ) [ Robinson and Catling (2012) provided a similar derivation to the one in the appendix as part of the development of a more general analytic model for the global-mean surface temperature of planetary atmospheres in radiative–convective equilibrium (see their section 2.6)]. The new dependence of on OLR, , and γ is shown in the right columns of

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Shuguang Wang, Edwin P. Gerber, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Climate models predict that there will be a substantial warming of the earth’s atmosphere by the end of the twenty-first century, accompanied by significant changes in the general circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere, if anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not abated. Coupled atmosphere–ocean climate models project that the tropospheric extratropical jets will shift poleward (e.g., Yin 2005 ; Miller et al. 2006 ), accompanied by an expansion of the

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Chenghai Wang, Kai Yang, Yiling Li, Di Wu, and Yue Bo

1. Introduction As an external forcing, snow plays an important role in the global radiation balance ( Shukla and Mooley 1987 ; Sankar-Rao et al. 1996 ; Walland and Simmonds 1996 ) and atmosphere–land interaction ( Yeh et al. 1983 ; Vernekar et al. 1995 ). It also has strong effects on the energy budget, hydrologic processes, and atmospheric circulation anomalies, which are regarded as sensitive indicators of climate change ( Blanford 1884 ; Yeh et al. 1983 ; Bamzai and Shukla 1999

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Graeme L. Stephens, Martin Wild, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Tristan L’Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and David S. Henderson

1. Introduction It has been understood for some time that changes to the strength of the greenhouse effect are fundamental to our understanding of the climate of earth and how it can change ( Arrenhius 1896 ; Callendar 1938 ; Kasting 1989 ). Increases in greenhouse gases like CO 2 induce a warming of the surface and lower atmosphere. The increase in water vapor that follows a warming results in a further strengthening of the greenhouse effect by increased emission of radiation from the

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Xin Qu and Alex Hall

1. Introduction Using an energy balance climate model, Budyko (1969) and Sellers (1969) hypothesized that if incoming solar energy and the transparency of the atmosphere to terrestrial radiation are prescribed, the earth’s surface temperature is largely controlled by planetary albedo. The connection of planetary albedo to the thermal state of the surface motivated the climate community to measure this quantity. Numerous estimates have led to a consensus that on a global-mean, annual

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Aaron Donohoe and David S. Battisti

1. Introduction The ratio of reflected to incident shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the earth’s planetary albedo, is a function of climate state and exerts a profound influence on the earth’s climate. As a reference point, Budyko (1969) postulated that a change in global average planetary albedo of less than 0.02 units could cause global glaciation of the climate system. The radiative forcing associated with a doubling of carbon dioxide above the preindustrial

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Robert D. Cess and Inna L. Vulis

Desert regions are employed in somewhat of a tutorial mode for the purpose of addressing several issuesassociated with understanding the dependence of planetary (top-of-the-atmosphere) albedo upon solar zenithangle, i.e., the directional planetary albedo. It is emphasized that in evaluating this quantity from satellite data,and with reference to land surfaces, spurious results may be obtained if geographical variations of the planetaryalbedo are not isolated from the aibedo's solar zenith angle

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Z. Liu

1. Introduction Significant decadal climate variability has been observed in the tropical Pacific (e.g., Zhang et al. 1997 ) and Atlantic (e.g., Hastenrath 1978 ; Houghton and Tourre 1992 ) Oceans. The origin of the tropical decadal climate variability, however, remains elusive. One fundamental difficulty is our poor understanding of the long-term memory of tropical ocean dynamics. Unifying the classical theories for the equatorial wave and the extratropical planetary wave, we ( Liu 2002

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