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Ronnie Leeper, Rezaul Mahmood, and Arturo I. Quintanar

. , Leeper R. , and Quintanar A. I. , 2011 : Sensitivity of planetary boundary layer atmosphere to historical and future changes of land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture in western Kentucky, USA . Global Planet. Change , 78 , 36 – 53 , doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.05.007 . McCumber, M. C. , and Pielke R. A. , 1981 : Simulation of the effects of surface fluxes of heat and moisture in a mesoscale numerical model . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 9929 – 9938 . McPherson, R. A

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

1. Introduction Despite evidence of the importance of land–atmosphere (LA) interactions in weather and climate prediction (e.g., Betts 2009 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ), the systematic impact of land surface parameterizations on coupled mesoscale modeling has proven difficult to quantify in a robust manner. The role of the land in modulating water and energy cycling has been well-documented in terms of LA coupling strength and the support of hydrological anomalies and extremes such as flood

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

-dimensional thermal and kinetic energy and moisture flux in the atmosphere. In all models, the Thompson et al. (2008) bulk microphysics scheme was used for simulated formation of cloud droplets and precipitation fallout. Longwave and shortwave radiation were represented by the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), respectively. Finally, the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme was used for planetary boundary layer dynamics ( Hong et al. 2006 ). Land surface

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Rui Mei, Guiling Wang, and Huanghe Gu

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere coupling involves two-way interactions between land and atmosphere, for example, between soil moisture (as a representative land surface characteristic) and precipitation (as a representative atmospheric variable). However, given the obvious impact of atmosphere on land (e.g., more precipitation leads to wetter soil), most studies on the land–atmosphere coupling focused on the impact of soil moisture on subsequent precipitation. The degree to which atmosphere

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William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and James McNamara

. 2015 ). We use the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory surface layer scheme, the Community Atmosphere Model shortwave and longwave radiation schemes, the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić TKE planetary boundary layer scheme, Thompson microphysics, and the Noah-MP land surface model ( Table 1 ). The Noah-MP land surface model ( Niu et al. 2011 ) uses a three-layer mass and energy balance snow model that accounts for melt, refreeze, and liquid water storage within the snowpack. The shortwave radiation calculation

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

Coauthors , 2004 : Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation . Science , 305 , 1138 – 1140 , https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100217 . 10.1126/science.1100217 Koster , R. D. , Y. Chang , and S. D. Schubert , 2014 : A mechanism for land–atmosphere feedback involving planetary wave structures . J. Climate , 27 , 9290 – 9301 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1 Koster , R. D. , Y. Chang , H. Wang , and S. D. Schubert

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Timothy M. Lahmers, Christopher L. Castro, and Pieter Hazenberg

1. Introduction Evidence of feedback between the lower atmosphere and the land surface, particularly in arid and semiarid environments, has been shown from analysis of near-surface fluxes and planetary boundary layer (PBL) characteristics in both modeling and observation studies (e.g., Findell and Eltahir 1997 ; Koster et al. 2002 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2009 ; Zeng et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). The recent development of coupled mesoscale atmospheric and distributed hydrologic modeling

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Cheng Tao, Yunyan Zhang, Qi Tang, Hsi-Yen Ma, Virendra P. Ghate, Shuaiqi Tang, Shaocheng Xie, and Joseph A. Santanello

1. Introduction Accurate representations of the land–atmosphere (LA) coupling processes are critical for weather forecasts and climate predictions ( Seneviratne et al. 2006 , 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). A lack of quantitative understanding of the nature and characteristics of LA coupling remains (e.g., Betts 2004 ; Ek and Holtslag 2004 ; Guillod et al. 2014 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ), owing to the multivariate and multiscale interactive processes between the land surface, planetary

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Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Mohan Thota, Vineeth Valappil, Oliver Branch, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Niranjan Kumar Kondapalli, Youssef Wehbe, Taha Al Hosary, Abdeltawab Shalaby, Noor Al Shamsi, and Hajer Al Naqbi

’s physical properties, and hence their representation in numerical models is very important for an accurate simulation of the surface and near-surface fields. An accurate modeling of land–atmosphere interactions strongly depends on how accurate the surface properties, in particular the predominant soil texture and LULC, are represented in the model. Göndöcs et al. (2015) investigated the sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model’s response to a more

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Hua Su, Robert E. Dickinson, Kirsten L. Findell, and Benjamin R. Lintner

Northern Hemisphere snow cover and the general circulation of the atmosphere . J. Int. Climatol. , 24 , 33 – 44 . Santanello, J. A. , Friedl M. A. , and Ek M. B. , 2007 : Convective planetary boundary layer interactions with the land surface at diurnal time scales: Diagnostics and feedbacks . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 1082 – 1097 . Seneviratne, S. I. , Corti T. , Davin E. L. , Hirschi M. , Jaeger E. B. , Lehner I. , Orlowsky B. , and Teuling A. J. , 2010 : Investigating soil

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