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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM), a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) based on specifically designed sensitivity experiments, the PMV was explicitly identified to originate in the North Pacific (>20°N; Liu et al. 2002 ; Wu et al. 2003 ). In an analysis of a long integration using the ECHAM3/large-scale geostrophic (LSG) CGCM, it was also concluded that the PMV originates in the North Pacific, although the role of active ocean–atmosphere interaction is suggested to be unimportant

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

layer mass and tracer transports are natural. The TRM approach has been used successfully to study eddy–mean flow interactions in the atmosphere ( Andrews et al. 1987 ). Here we show that similar advantages arise in the study of gyre circulations in enclosed domains. In particular we use the TRM formalism to include eddy feedbacks in models akin to Parsons (1969) and later extensions by other investigators. Unlike much of the recent literature, this paper does not provide detailed maps of eddy

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

general circulation model (GCM), described the behavior of the MOC in the Atlantic at 25°N between 1993 and 2004, concluding that there were apparent weak trends of changing signs at various depths in the meridional volume transport but that there was no evidence for a significant trend in the enthalpy (temperature) transport. But climate is global, and the NA-MOC is a small part of the ocean circulation that can only be understood in the wider context. Here we examine the planetary zonally integrated

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

planetary waves being advected eastward by the mean current. 2 Equatorward of the ACC the waves travel from east to west, as is found in the rest of the oceanic basins ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ). Both the alongstream average current and the wave speeds are plotted in Fig. 2 to summarize the observations. The vertical structure of the mean current, shown in Fig. 3 , along with the wave speed observations in Fig. 2 suggest that the steering level is at a depth of about 1 km. An analysis of the

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R. M. Samelson

is assumed to be warmed by contact with the atmosphere as it crosses the current northward, is given by where V Ek is the vertically integrated Ekman transport per unit longitude. Although various schemes have been proposed, there is no generally accepted theory for the dependence of the eddy fluxes T e on the large-scale flow. In the absence of such a theory, a maximally simple prescription is adopted here, in which the eddy transport is taken to be proportional to the zonal mean h m 2 of

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