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Meng-Pai Hung, Jia-Lin Lin, Wanqiu Wang, Daehyun Kim, Toshiaki Shinoda, and Scott J. Weaver

1. Introduction Tropical convection is often organized into synoptic- to planetary-scale disturbances whose time scale is less than a season (~90 days) ( Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 , hereafter WK ; Wheeler and Weickmann 2001 ). This “subseasonal” variability plays an important role in the global climate system by modulating the location and timing of tropical deep convection and has been suggested as a key source of untapped predictability for the extended-range forecasts in both the tropics

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Baird Langenbrunner and J. David Neelin

1. Introduction El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a leading mode of interannual climate variability originating in the tropical Pacific. ENSO teleconnections are a reflection of the strong coupling between the tropical ocean and global atmosphere, and SST anomalies in the equatorial Pacific can have substantial remote effects on climate ( Horel and Wallace 1981 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 ; Trenberth et al. 1998 ; Wallace et al. 1998 ; Dai and Wigley 2000 ). In recent decades

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

are largely caused by model deficiencies, which could be associated with model schemes that represent cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing, cloud–radiation feedbacks, and/or SST biases from the inclusion of the atmosphere–ocean coupling (e.g., Sheffield et al. 2012, submitted to J. Climate ). Figure 2 presents an objective assessment of the summer mean state simulated in each CMIP5 GCM by illustrating Taylor diagrams for rainfall and wind patterns over the ENP domain (5°S–30

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Edmund K. M. Chang

midlatitude extratropical cyclones found in many studies (e.g., Geng and Sugi 2003 ; Lambert and Fyfe 2006 ; Bengtsson et al. 2006 ; Lim and Simmonds 2009 ). On the other hand, warming leads to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, which could lead to enhanced latent heat release, possibly giving rise to more intense cyclones ( Lambert and Fyfe 2006 ). However, Bengtsson et al. (2009) found no significant increase in cyclone intensity measured in terms of extreme winds or vorticity in a

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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

water resource management systems and natural ecosystems, and will likely have additional economic consequences because of the importance of freshwater to tourism and agriculture ( Hayhoe et al. 2007 ). The northeast region is located in the trough of the stationary planetary wave produced by the Rocky Mountains, within the band of midlatitude westerlies ( Manabe and Broccoli 1990 ). During summer, the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone steers low pressure and frontal systems toward the

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Brian A. Colle, Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, and Minghua Zhang

, a weak and fast moving cyclone can be masked by the background flow until it significantly developed. The planetary scales (i.e., total wavenumber equal or less than 5) are removed. Anderson et al. (2003) showed little sensitivity using wavenumber 5 or 7 for this filter. The data are also truncated at small scales (i.e., total wavenumber larger than 70). This is slightly larger than the wavenumber 63 cutoff used in Hodges et al. (2011) so that some smaller-scale cyclones can be identified

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