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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

1. Introduction The air–sea interaction over western boundary currents and their extension is substantially stronger than in other regions. The large amounts of heat and moisture that are released from warm ocean currents to the overlying atmosphere during winter play a key role in Earth’s energy transport and climate variability ( Kelly and Dong 2004 ). The impacts of western boundary currents on the atmosphere range from frontal to basin scales. At the basin scale, Nakamura et al. (2004

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

et al. 2005 ; Anderson et al. 2007 ; Zhai et al. 2011 ), ocean–ecosystem coupled models forced by atmospheric data ( Oschlies 2004 ; Marzeion et al. 2005 ; Manizza et al. 2008 ), atmosphere–ocean coupled models using satellite-derived chlorophyll data ( Shell et al. 2003 ; Gildor and Naik 2005 ; Ballabrera-Poy et al. 2007 ; Gnanadesikan and Anderson 2009 ; Gnanadesikan et al. 2010 ; Lin et al. 2011 ; Turner et al. 2012 ; Liang and Wu 2013 ), and fully coupled models including

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

°N and from 99° to 270°E with top of the atmosphere at 10 hPa and 30 vertical levels for all simulations. The model configuration includes the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus scheme ( Kain 2004 ), Lin et al.’s (1983) microphysics scheme, the Noah land surface scheme, the YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme ( Hong and Pan 1996 ), and the RRTM for GCMs (RRTMG) and Goddard scheme for longwave and shortwave radiation ( Chou and Suarez 1994 ; Mlawer et al. 1997 ). A more detailed description of the

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

necessarily coherent ( Nonaka et al. 2006 ). Frankignoul et al. (2011b , hereafter FSKA ) indeed found negligible correlation between their KE and OE indices. The Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE) region is an area of maximum heat release from the ocean to the atmosphere and strong interannual SST variability, especially on its northern side along the OE ( Kelly et al. 2010 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Vivier et al. (2002) showed that interannual changes in the upper ocean heat content of the KE are

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

1. Introduction It is well established that coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropics, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), exerts extensive influence on extratropical climatic conditions via atmospheric teleconnection. In contrast, the influence of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on large-scale extratropical atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant in the presence of the prevailing dominant remote influence from the tropics

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Shusaku Sugimoto

1. Introduction In the extratropical North Pacific, vigorous heat related to the turbulent heat flux (THF; the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes) is released from the ocean to the atmosphere in winter ( Fig. 1a ). The THF release in winter is predominantly controlled by surface wind, which has a negative local correlation with sea surface temperature (SST) ( Davis 1976 ; Frankignoul 1985 ; Iwasaka et al. 1987 ; Wallace and Jiang 1987 ; Lau and Nath 1994 ; Nakamura et al. 1997

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<0313:TIOTSS>2.0.CO;2 . Feliks , Y. , M. Ghil , and E. Simonnet , 2004 : Low-frequency variability in the midlatitude atmosphere induced by an oceanic thermal front . J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 961 – 981 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0961:LVITMA>2.0.CO;2 . Frankignoul , C. , 1985 : Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes . Rev. Geophys. , 23 , 357 – 390 , doi: 10.1029/RG023i004p00357

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

frontal zone (SAFZ), taking advantage of satellite measurements, newer models, and longer observational data. The North Pacific SAFZ forms a boundary between the warm Kuroshio and cool Oyashio waters ( Yasuda 2003 ; Kida et al. 2015 ) with a climatologically sharp meridional SST gradient and vigorous atmosphere–ocean interaction ( Kwon et al. 2010 ; Kelly et al. 2010 ; Nakamura et al. 2015 ). The sharp meridional SST gradient across the SAFZ was unresolved in AGCMs used in the aforementioned

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

, SST frontal length scale, and latitude ( Small et al. 2008 ). Although the SST frontal influence on surface winds and stress is established, it is not clear how an SST front may affect the free atmosphere. Are the changes to the atmosphere evident in the wind stress fields ( Fig. 1 ) confined to the MABL, or do they penetrate into the free atmosphere? Through what mechanisms may an SST front influence the free atmosphere? The classical view is that the atmospheric boundary layer interacts with the

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Hyodae Seo

, experiments, and data a. Model description The Scripps Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model ( Seo et al. 2007a , 2014 , 2016 ; http://hseo.whoi.edu/scoar ) is a regional coupled climate model that couples the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ). The interacting boundary layer is based on the bulk formula ( Fairall et al. 1996 ; 2003 ), which calculates the

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