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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

–O cyclone forecasting errors. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream (i.e., western boundary currents) supply a large amount of heat and moisture to the midlatitude atmosphere (e.g., Kelly et al. 2010 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Several previous studies have shown that the supply of heat and moisture contributed to the rapid development of extratropical cyclones through decreased atmospheric stability and increased latent

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

) and MSM data (green line). The location of the cyclone at its maximum deepening rate is also shown by a circle. The reproducibility of the cyclone in the CNTL run was better than that in the H15 simulation using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean regional model, CReSS–Non Hydrostatic Ocean model for the Earth Simulator (NHOES) ( Aiki et al. 2015 ). This is because the maximum deepening rate in the H15 simulation was 2.8 hPa h −1 , which is lower than that in the CNTL run and the MSM

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

air did not reach the surface of the earth in October (during P1), however, in spite of the strong negative AO and WP values then. Anomalous positive sensible and latent heat fluxes during P1 and P2 indicate that heat from the ocean was released to the atmosphere during these periods ( Fig. 1e ). The negative AO and WP, which tended to cool SATs around Japan, also led to these positive heat fluxes. During October, the record-breaking warm SST (normalized interannual SST index was +1.72) offset the

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