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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

1. Introduction The near-surface atmosphere, namely, the bottom 10% of the atmospheric boundary layer, is unique due to its direct interaction with the earth's surface ( Stull 1988 ). For instance, near-surface temperature is characterized by diurnal variation, with a maximum at local afternoon and a minimum at local midnight. This is very different from the free atmosphere in which temperature shows little diurnal variation. Turbulence causes the wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

1. Introduction Accurate temperature forecasts by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are critical for the protection of life and property, economic and operational activities, and routine day-to-day planning. Temperature forecasts not only affect near-surface (2 m) conditions, but also atmospheric stability, planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights, near-surface winds, and precipitation type. Large systematic temperature errors from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are

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