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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

evident in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), where radial inflows are peaked. In addition, Xu and Wang (2015) found that TC intensification rate is negatively and positively correlated with the RMW and storm intensity (i.e., V MAX ), respectively. The highest RI tends to occur when the RMW is less than 40 km with V MAX of about 40 m s −1 . Although little progress has been made in operationally predicting the RI of TCs, cloud-permitting simulations of some rapidly intensifying TCs, such as

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

) field. Model dynamics will then adjust the mean and asymmetric wind fields, which in the lower model levels will take into account the planetary boundary layer frictional effects and enthalpy fluxes. Whereas these internal adjustments will determine the intensity change, the TC vortex dynamics and physics prediction are expected to also improve the interaction between the vortex and its environment in conjunction with the better depiction of the outflow jets from the high temporal and spatial

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