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Adrian M. Tompkins and Laura Feudale

) indicate that wind stress is the major determinant of the SST variability in the southern tropical Atlantic (STA) mode. Under representing local wind speeds leads to inadequate convective precipitation in atmosphere-only uncoupled models ( Miller et al. 1992 ). In a coupled model, this is complicated by the fact that surface flux anomalies cannot alter the local moist static energy budget integrated across the planetary boundary layer and the ocean surface mixed layer. Thus, although the SST will warm

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Sen Chiao and Gregory S. Jenkins

forecasts were integrated until 1200 UTC 22 August 2006. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme used for this study was the Yonsei University PBL scheme ( Hong and Dudhia 2003 ). The atmospheric radiation scheme accounts for longwave [i.e., the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM); Mlawer et al. (1997) ] and shortwave ( Dudhia 1989 ) transfers and interactions with the atmosphere, clouds, and the surface. Precipitation was produced from both grid-scale condensation and convection in the 25-km

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