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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

precipitation measurements; 2) designing validation programs, such as those for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, but with data assimilation applications in mind; and 3) exploiting millimeter-wave sounding channels [e.g., Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)] with improved sensitivity to snow and drizzle to retrieve variables describing clouds and precipitation. 3. Issues concerning models The diverse set of models and associated components required

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

), not only for global averages over 122 diverse storms observed between 83°N and 73°S over a year, but also for subsets of convective, stratiform, snowy, and other types of precipitation. This paper extends this initial sensitivity analysis to several additional model assumptions and to their impact upon predicted retrieval accuracies. Section 2 of this paper reviews briefly the approach taken and the data and models used, including 1) the physical basis for the link between millimeter-wave spectra

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Fuzhong Weng

propagation direction of electromagnetic (EM) wave. This parameterization has resulted in an excellent simulation of the brightness temperatures from the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS; Han 2006 ). c. Surface emissivity modeling For window channels as well as lower sounding channels, the measurements respond to the radiation emanating from the earth’s surface. As such, the radiance and Jacobian computations require accurate knowledge of the

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Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

-frequency time oscillations. The digital-filter initialization was proposed by Lynch and Huang (1994) , and was demonstrated to be effective in reducing dynamic imbalance and improving the qualities of analysis by Wee and Kuo (2004) . The physical processes that were employed in the minimization procedure are the medium-range forecast (MRF, a previous version of GFS) planetary boundary layer parameterization ( Hong and Pan 1996 ); Kuo-type cumulus parameterization; and large-scale precipitation process

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Philippe Lopez

independent of meteorological conditions, Ricard and Royer (1993) and Lohmann et al. (1999) allowed their respective PDF variance to be modulated by turbulence inside the planetary boundary layer. Tompkins (2002) added even more complexity in his scheme by including the effect of both turbulence and convective activity on his beta distribution through two additional prognostic equations for variance and skewness. In cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that have been used only for research purposes so far

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