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Siegfried Schubert, David Gutzler, Hailan Wang, Aiguo Dai, Tom Delworth, Clara Deser, Kirsten Findell, Rong Fu, Wayne Higgins, Martin Hoerling, Ben Kirtman, Randal Koster, Arun Kumar, David Legler, Dennis Lettenmaier, Bradfield Lyon, Victor Magana, Kingtse Mo, Sumant Nigam, Philip Pegion, Adam Phillips, Roger Pulwarty, David Rind, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Jae Schemm, Richard Seager, Ronald Stewart, Max Suarez, Jozef Syktus, Mingfang Ting, Chunzai Wang, Scott Weaver, and Ning Zeng

with warm surface temperature anomalies. Differences in the land surface models very likely account for some of these model differences; however, the apparent sensitivity of the response over the United States to small (on planetary scales) shifts in the upper-level wave response to the SST forcing may also play a role. The fact that there is less sensitivity for the precipitation response is surprising, though it may be partly that the area mean of the more localized precipitation anomalies is

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Matías Méndez and Víctor Magaña

analysis of prolonged drought in Mexico should focus on Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer rains. During this season, trade winds and easterly waves produce moisture flux from the Americas warm pools into continental Mesoamerica (i.e., the geographical area that extends from central Mexico down through Central America) ( Mestas-Nuñez et al. 2002 ; Wu et al. 2009 ). In the northern part of Mexico subsidence persists most of the year. It is only when easterly waves (EW) or tropical cyclones (TC) force

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Yochanan Kushnir, Richard Seager, Mingfang Ting, Naomi Naik, and Jennifer Nakamura

midlatitude response over North America is enhanced by a stationary wave anomaly caused by the changes in the location of the convective heating centers in the tropics, which forces low (high) pressure in the Gulf of Alaska and ascent (descent) over the American West [a phenomenon known as the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern; see, e.g., Horel and Wallace (1981) , Wallace and Gutzler (1981) , and Trenberth et al. (1998) ]. Both the zonally symmetric and wavelike response to ENSO thus lead to

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