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Meng-Pai Hung, Jia-Lin Lin, Wanqiu Wang, Daehyun Kim, Toshiaki Shinoda, and Scott J. Weaver

these waves, there exists another mode of the tropical intraseasonal variability, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ; Zhang 2005 ). The MJO involves the interaction between the convection and large-scale circulation and is characterized by the eastward propagation of planetary-scale (wavenumber 1–3) and low-frequency (period 30–60 days) waves. The MJO and CCEWs strongly affect the tropical weather such as the onset and breaks of the Asian and Australian monsoon systems (e

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

achievements have been made in modeling global ISV during past decades, significant challenges remain in current general circulation models (GCMs) (e.g., Slingo et al. 1996 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ; Lin et al. 2006 ; Kim et al. 2009 ). For ENP ISV, Lin et al. (2008) analyzed simulations of ISV and easterly waves over the ENP by the 22 phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Their

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Baird Langenbrunner and J. David Neelin

of the atmospheric components of CGCMs in setting the dynamics of ENSO and its teleconnections ( Guilyardi et al. 2004 , 2009a ; Lloyd et al. 2009 ; Sun et al. 2009 ; Weare 2013 ), as well as how ENSO will behave under climate change ( Collins et al. 2010 ). The precipitation response to interannual climate variations like ENSO also continues to be a challenge for CGCMs ( Dai 2006 ). In the tropics, equatorial wave dynamics spread tropospheric temperature anomalies, which induce feedbacks

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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

water resource management systems and natural ecosystems, and will likely have additional economic consequences because of the importance of freshwater to tourism and agriculture ( Hayhoe et al. 2007 ). The northeast region is located in the trough of the stationary planetary wave produced by the Rocky Mountains, within the band of midlatitude westerlies ( Manabe and Broccoli 1990 ). During summer, the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone steers low pressure and frontal systems toward the

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Edmund K. M. Chang

circulation model . J. Climate , 23 , 3474 – 3496 . Butler , A. H. , D. W. J. Thompson , and T. Birner , 2011 : Isentropic slopes, downgradient eddy fluxes, and the extratropical atmospheric circulation response to tropical tropospheric heating . J. Atmos. Sci. , 68 , 2292 – 2305 . Cai , M. , and M. Mak , 1990 : Symbiotic relation between planetary and synoptic scale waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 2953 – 2968 . Chang , E. K. M. , 2009 : Are band-pass variance statistics useful

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Brian A. Colle, Zhenhai Zhang, Kelly A. Lombardo, Edmund Chang, Ping Liu, and Minghua Zhang

cover, the meridional temperature gradient decreases near the surface and there is less potential for surface cyclogenesis. Even though there are competing upper- and lower-level changes to storm-track frequency, Held and O'Brien (1992) and Lunkeit et al. (1998) showed that baroclinic wave activity is more sensitive to lower-level changes rather than changes in the upper troposphere. There is more uncertainty in how the frequency of more intense extratropical cyclones will change in the future

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